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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 
OR 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from _________ to _________
 
Commission file number: 001-08568 
Teligent, Inc.
(Formerly IGI Laboratories, Inc.)
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Delaware 01-0355758
(State or other jurisdiction (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
of incorporation or organization)  
   
105 Lincoln Ave., Buena, NJ
  08310
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (856) 697-1441
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
 
Title of each class Trading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on
  
Common Stock, Par Value $0.01 Per Share TLGTThe Nasdaq Stock Market
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.     Yes ¨    No  ý
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes ¨    No  ý
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes  ý    No  ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes  ý    No  ¨
 
 


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
 
Large accelerated filer¨   Accelerated filer ¨
Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No  ý
 
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (without admitting that any person whose shares are not included in such calculation is an affiliate) computed by reference to the price at which the common stock was last sold, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $27.4 million.
 
As of March 25, 2020, the registrant had 53,899,495 shares of common stock outstanding.
 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
The following documents (or parts thereof) are incorporated by reference into the following parts of this Form 10-K: Certain information required in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated from the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 19, 2020.


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements regarding us and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"). Such forward-looking statements include those that express plans, anticipation, intent, contingency, goals, targets or future development and/or otherwise are not statements of historical fact. These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and projections about future events and they are subject to risks and uncertainties known and unknown that could cause actual results and developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such statements.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology, such as “goals,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “predicts,” “appears,” “projects,” or the negative of such terms or other similar expressions. Factors that could cause or contribute to differences in results and outcomes from those in our forward-looking statements include, without limitation, those discussed in this Current Report on Form 10-K, as well as those discussed in our other Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") filings. We undertake no obligation to (and expressly disclaim any obligation to) revise or update any forward-looking statements made herein whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. However, you should consult any further disclosures we may make on these or related topics in our reports on Form 8-K or Form 10-Q filed with the SEC.
The following discussions should be read in conjunction with the sections of this Report entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Risk Factors.”

2


PART I

Item 1. BUSINESS

Our Company
 
Strategic Overview
 
Teligent, Inc., is a specialty generic pharmaceutical company. All references to "Teligent," the "Company," "we," "us," and "our" refer to Teligent, Inc. Our mission is to become a leader in the specialty generic pharmaceutical market. Under our own label, we currently market and sell generic topical, branded generic and generic injectable pharmaceutical products in the United States and Canada. In the United States we are currently marketing 38 generic topical pharmaceutical products and 4 branded generic pharmaceutical products. In Canada, we sell over 32 generic and branded generic injectable products and medical devices. Generic pharmaceutical products are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts. We also provide contract manufacturing services to the pharmaceutical, over-the-counter, ("OTC"), and cosmetic markets. We operate our business under one segment.

Our common stock is trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “TLGT.” Our principal executive office, laboratories and manufacturing facilities are located at 105 Lincoln Avenue, Buena, New Jersey. We have additional offices located in Iselin, New Jersey, Mississauga, Canada, and Tallinn, Estonia.
 
We have two platforms for growth:
 
Developing, manufacturing and marketing a portfolio of generic pharmaceutical products under our own or a private label in topical, injectable, complex and ophthalmic dosage forms; and

Managing our current contract manufacturing and formulation services business.

We have been in the contract manufacturing and development of topical products business since the early 1990s, but our strategy since 2010 has been focused on the growth of our own generic pharmaceutical business. Since 2010, we have focused on transitioning our business to include more customers in the topical pharmaceutical industry. In 2014, we broadened our primary target product focus from topical pharmaceuticals to include a wider specialty pharmaceutical approach. We believe that expanding our development and commercial base beyond topical generics, historically the cornerstone of our expertise, to include injectable generics, complex generics and ophthalmic generics (what we call our "TICO strategy"), will leverage our existing expertise and capabilities, and broaden our platform for a more diversified strategic growth.
 
Teligent was recognized by the FDA as one of the top 15 generic companies to receive Abbreviated New Drug Application ("ANDA") approvals in 2018. In 2019, we submitted one ANDA. We currently have 16 ANDAs submitted singly and 2 ANDAs that were submitted with partners are pending at the FDA. Additionally, we have 2 ANDs pending before Canada's food and drug regulatory authority. We have an additional 45 product candidates at various stages of our development pipeline.

We expect to continue to expand our presence in the generic topical pharmaceutical market through the filing of additional ANDAs and the subsequent launch of products as these applications are approved. We received five approvals from our internally developed pipeline of topical generic products in 2019. We intend to continue to submit further ANDAs to the FDA and abbreviated new drug submissions ("ANDS") to Health Canada in 2020, although the typical timelines for submission and approval may be adversely impacted by the current COVID-19 pandemic. We continue to seek to license or acquire further products, intellectual property, or pending applications to expand our portfolio. We expect to accelerate our growth through the creation of unique opportunities from the acquisition of additional intellectual property and/or the expansion of the use of our existing intellectual property. We are also exploring the options to monetize certain of our non-core assets.

Facility Expansion. We completed the first phase of our facility expansion in July 2016, with the complete interior renovation of our building at 101 Lincoln Avenue in Buena, New Jersey. This building now houses our new product development laboratory for work on topical and sterile pharmaceuticals. This laboratory integrates our formulation and analytical chemistry teams into one lab. This building renovation also houses our regulatory affairs, supply chain and corporate service teams.

3


We continued with the significant expansion and utilities upgrade of our manufacturing facility at 105 Lincoln Avenue in Buena, New Jersey. In October 2018, we received the Certificate of Occupancy to begin using our manufacturing facility, which includes a state-of-the-art quality control and microbiology lab for the testing of our pharmaceutical products. The expanded facility has increased our manufacturing capability for topical products and, upon FDA approval, will also enable the production of sterile injectable products in both vial and ampule presentations. We have utilized this facility expansion as an opportunity to upgrade and improve the degree of automation and capacity in our existing topical production suite. The sterile production area is designed around isolator-based technology. The facility includes a versatile vial and ampule filling line capable of between four and eight million units per year, with space and critical utilities included in the build-out for a potential future higher-speed filling line. Through December 31, 2019 the Company has incurred approximately $88.3 million for this project and is currently substantially complete with construction. We have been partnering with contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, for the development, registration and manufacture of some of our sterile injectable and ophthalmic products. Upon successful FDA inspection, we may transfer the manufacture of some of these injectable products to this facility. We will also use the new sterile production capability to support our internal R&D pipeline of sterile injectable products in vial and ampule presentations. The expansion was implemented in order to secure Teligent's long-term growth in manufacturing and marketing injectable Pharmaceutical products for sale in the U.S.

Teligent Canada. On November 13, 2015, we acquired all of the rights, title and interest in the development, production, marketing, import and distribution of all products of Alveda Pharmaceuticals Inc., or Alveda, pursuant to two asset purchase agreements, one relating to the acquisition of all of the intellectual property-related assets of Alveda and the other relating to the acquisition of all other assets of Alveda.
 
In connection with the completion of the acquisition, we formed three subsidiaries: Teligent Luxembourg S.à.r.l., or LuxCo, a private limited company incorporated under the laws of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and wholly-owned by the Company; Teligent OÜ, a private limited company incorporated under the laws of the Republic of Estonia that is wholly-owned by LuxCo; and Teligent Canada Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of the Province of British Columbia that is wholly-owned by LuxCo.
 
Teligent Canada currently has 14 employees located in our offices in Mississauga, Canada. Teligent Canada acquired all of the Alveda working capital, including accounts receivable, inventory, accounts payable, and capital assets. In addition, Teligent Canada acquired Alveda’s existing customer relationships, all contracts necessary to execute the Canadian distribution activities, operational permits, and all intellectual property required to operate the marketing and distribution of products in Canada. Teligent Canada also transitioned a majority of the existing workforce as part of the acquisition. Teligent Canada currently markets and distributes over 32 products. Teligent continues to transition these products to distribute them under a Teligent Canada label.
 
Teligent OÜ. Teligent OÜ currently has 15 employees. Teligent OÜ is responsible for the development, enhancement, maintenance, protection and exploitation functions related to the intellectual property-related assets acquired from Alveda. In addition, Teligent OÜ is responsible for the management of the supply chain function and procurement of products for sale to Teligent Canada in addition to certain products and active pharmaceutical ingredients ("API's") for Teligent Pharma, Inc. in the U.S. We built and developed a laboratory to support analytical chemistry, quality control, and formulation development to support our Teligent US and Teligent Canada supply chain management and technical services teams.
  
Our Generic Pharmaceutical Business
 
In September 2010, we leveraged our existing formulation and manufacturing capabilities to begin the Company’s transformation from being solely a contract manufacturing and development company into a generic pharmaceutical company with our own portfolio of products, as recognized by our first ANDA submission to the FDA. ANDAs are submitted to the FDA for generic drug products that have the same active ingredient, strength, dosage form, and route of administration as brand name innovator drug products to which they are bioequivalent, meaning that there is no significant difference between the drugs in their rate and extent of absorption in the body. In the United States, approved ANDA generic drugs are usually interchangeable with the innovator drug. This means that the generic version may generally be substituted for the branded product by either a physician or pharmacist when dispensing a prescription. Our commercialization of each of these product candidates requires approval of the respective ANDA by the FDA.
 
Based on IQVIA data, the addressable market for the 16 ANDA filings that Teligent has pending with the FDA totals approximately $1.06 billion per annum. We expect to continue to expand our presence in the generic topical pharmaceutical market through the submission of additional ANDAs to the FDA and the subsequent launch of products if and when these applications are approved by the FDA. Additionally, we plan to file further ANDSs with Health Canada in 2020 to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic allows for the submission of new drug applications. We also have 45 additional product candidates in various stages of development.
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As part of our growth strategy, we also seek opportunities to acquire additional products and ANDAs or ANDSs. On February 1, 2013, we acquired assets and intellectual property, including an approved ANDA, for econazole nitrate cream 1%, which we launched under our label in September 2013. On September 24, 2014, we acquired from AstraZeneca previously approved ANDAs and NDAs associated with 18 products, 17 of which are injectable products and one non-injectable product for pain management. On September 30, 2014, we acquired previously marketed and approved ANDAs associated with two ophthalmic products from Valeant Pharmaceuticals LLC and Valeant Pharmaceuticals Luxembourg SARL, or Valeant, in addition to the exclusive right to acquire three additional previously marketed and approved injectable products from Valeant. In November 2014, we completed the purchase of one of those three optioned injectable products and its related NDA from Valeant. In March 2015, we completed the purchase of the final two optioned injectable products and their related NDAs from Valeant.
 
On November 13, 2015, we formed Teligent Canada, and completed the acquisition of Alveda. Teligent Canada had ten employees, including a general manager located in our offices in Mississauga, Canada. Teligent Canada acquired all of the Alveda working capital, including accounts receivable, inventory, accounts payable, and capital assets. In addition, Teligent Canada acquired Alveda’s existing customer relations, all contracts necessary to execute the Canadian distribution activities, operational permits, and all intellectual property required to operate the marketing and distribution of Alveda’s products in Canada. Teligent Canada also transitioned a majority of the existing workforce as part of the acquisition. Teligent Canada currently markets and distributes 32 injectable products.
 
Our Contract Manufacturing and Development Business
 
We develop, manufacture, fill and package topical semi-solid and liquid products for branded and generic pharmaceutical customers, as well as the OTC and cosmetic markets. These products are used in a wide range of applications from cosmetics and cosmeceuticals to the prescription treatment of conditions like dermatitis, psoriasis and eczema.
 
We believe that our quality contract manufacturing and development business provides a consistent and reliable source of products and services to our customers. We offer flexibility in batch sizing and package design, which gives our customers the opportunity to select the appropriate presentation for each product. Our high-speed packaging lines can accommodate a variety of tubes, bottles, pumps and jars. As a result of the rollout of our TICO strategy and the increased focus and commitment of R&D and technical resources toward internal projects, revenue from our contract services business may decrease over time.
 
 Our Competitive Strategy
 
We develop and market a diversified product portfolio focused on alternative dosage forms. Our goal is to become a leader in the specialty generic pharmaceutical market. Under our own label, we currently market and sell generic topical and branded generic injectable pharmaceutical products in the United States and Canada. We also provide contract manufacturing services to the pharmaceutical, OTC, and cosmetic markets. We have been in the contract manufacturing and development of topical products business since the early 1990s, but our strategy since 2010 has been focused on the growth of our own generic pharmaceutical business. In 2014, we started the transformation of our business from working toward being a leader in the topical generic pharmaceutical industry to becoming a leader in the specialty pharmaceutical markets. We believe that expanding our development and commercial base beyond topical generics to injectable generics, complex generics and ophthalmic generics (what we call our TICO strategy), will leverage existing expertise and capabilities, diversify our commercial opportunities and broaden our platform for long-term strategic growth.
 
Our TICO Strategy
 
Our TICO strategy originated from the opportunity to leverage our value chain, which we have developed and strengthened through our topical portfolio. Our value chain includes our internal expertise in product and molecule selection and development, manufacturing, sales, logistics and distribution, as well as our relationships with our customers and consumers. With the expansion of our existing manufacturing facility, we see the potential to effectively leverage our existing infrastructure across this value chain and to further expand our strategic reach to the injectable, complex and ophthalmic generic pharmaceutical markets.
 
Topical (T) - Our focus on the topical market has been the foundation for our growth. While we have manufactured topical products since the early 1990s, we began to focus our strategy on the topical generic market in 2010. In December 2012, we launched our first generic topical pharmaceutical products under our own label. Currently, we market 38 topical products under our own label. We have received FDA approvals for 38 topical generic products from
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our internally developed pipeline. In our topical pipeline, we have 18 ANDAs submitted to the FDA that are awaiting approval. We intend to continue to develop topical generic products and utilize our expertise in drug formulation and manufacture to expand our own generic topical prescription drug portfolio. We are targeting to develop and file further regulatory submissions with the FDA in 2020. Upon regulatory approval, we would market these products under the Teligent label to national chain drug stores and drug wholesalers through our internal sales efforts.
 
In our topical contract services business, we have developed strong customer relationships that we believe provide us with both recurring revenue streams from those customers and opportunities to selectively increase our product offerings to our customers. We intend to continue to capitalize on our strong customer relationships to maintain some contract manufacturing and development revenues.
 
We have an FDA-registered facility that is equipped for manufacturing topical, semi-solid and liquid products. The design and configuration of our manufacturing facility provides flexibility in manufacturing batch sizes from 250 kg up to 4,000 kg. We intend to leverage this flexibility and capacity to support our growth in the topical prescription markets. We are progressing with the significant expansion and utilities upgrade in this facility which will increase our manufacturing capacity for topical products to accommodate the expected growth created by the eventual commercial launch of generic pharmaceutical products in our pipeline. On November 26, 2019, the FDA issued us a Warning Letter following an inspection of our manufacturing facility at 105 Lincoln Avenue, Buena, New Jersey, that identified several cGMP violations. We are continuing to work diligently to remediate all issues cited by the FDA and hope to close out this inspection in the coming months.
 
Injectable (I) - As part of the injectable phase of our TICO strategy, on September 24, 2014, we acquired from AstraZeneca previously approved ANDAs and NDAs associated with 18 products, 17 of which are injectable products and one of which is a non-injectable product for pain management. Of the products we acquired, two of the products are currently on the FDA drug shortage list. We have received FDA approval for our first product in this portfolio, Cefotan® (Cefotetan for Injection), which we launched in the first quarter of 2016.

On September 30, 2014, we acquired previously marketed and approved ANDAs associated with two ophthalmic products from Valeant, in addition to the exclusive right to acquire three additional previously marketed and approved injectable products from Valeant. In November 2014, we completed the purchase of the NDA for one of those three optioned injectable products from Valeant. In March 2015, we completed the purchase of the final two NDAs for the optioned injectable products from Valeant.

On October 5, 2015, we acquired three currently marketed injectable pharmaceutical products (Fortaz®, Zinacef ™ and Zantac® Injection) from Concordia Pharmaceuticals Inc., S.à.r.l., Barbados Branch.
 
We intend to leverage our existing topical value chain as we build our injectable generic portfolio. We have entered into partnerships with contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, for the manufacture of some of our products in our portfolio of sterile products. Longer term, we expect to bring much of this production capability in-house.
 
The facility expansion, which completed construction activities in the fourth quarter of 2018 will also enable the production of sterile injectable products in both vial and ampule presentations. The sterile production area is designed around forward-thinking isolator-based technology. We have a portfolio of sterile injectable products we acquired in 2014, which upon completion of the site expansion, we may transfer the manufacture of some of these products to our Buena, New Jersey facility. We will also use the new sterile production capability to support our internal R&D pipeline of sterile injectable products in vial and ampule presentations.
 
We plan to continue to pursue business development opportunities to expand our injectable portfolio.
 
Complex (C) - We began one project as part of the complex portfolio of our TICO strategy. Our partner filed the ANDA in the second quarter of 2017 for a generic version of an oral product that targets an orphan disease and received a complete response letter from the FDA in the third quarter of 2018. The Company responded to the FDA’s complete response letter in 2019, but received a second complete response letter on December 23, 2019. The response to this CRL was submitted on January 21, 2020. We consider our focus on complex products or markets to be broadly defined to include potential complexity in one of the critical areas of our industry value chain. The intent of this opportunity is to provide patients with a lower cost alternative of an approved orphan drug. We will continue to seek opportunities relevant to building our complex portfolio of products.
 
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Ophthalmic (O) - As part of the ophthalmic portfolio of our TICO strategy, on September 30, 2014, we acquired previously marketed and approved ANDAs associated with two ophthalmic products from Valeant. Similar to our injectable portfolio, we are forming partnerships with CMOs for commercial production. We plan to continue to review business development opportunities to expand our ophthalmic portfolio. We are currently working with a contract research organization to develop three generic ophthalmic products.
 
Our Customers
 
Generic Pharmaceutical Business. The manufacturing and commercialization of generic specialty pharmaceutical markets is competitive, and there are established manufacturers, suppliers and distributors actively engaged in all phases of our business. We currently manufacture and sell topical generic pharmaceutical products under our own label. In October 2015, we acquired and began to sell our first generic injectable products. We currently market over 32 products in Canada. As we continue to execute our TICO strategy, we will compete in other markets, including the injectable and ophthalmic generic pharmaceutical markets, and expect to face other competitors.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2019, and 2018, 43% and 54% of our total product sales, net, respectively, were to the three large wholesale drug distributors: AmerisourceBergen Corporation, or ABC; Cardinal Health, Inc., or Cardinal; and McKesson Drug Company, or McKesson. As of December 31, 2019, Cardinal accounted for 22% of our accounts receivable, ABC accounted for 11% of our accounts receivable, and McKesson accounted for 25% of our accounts receivable. As of December 31, 2018, Cardinal accounted for 19% of our accounts receivable, McKesson accounted for 30% of our accounts receivable, and ABC accounted for approximately 19% of our accounts receivable.
  
ABC, Cardinal and McKesson are key distributors of our products, as well as a broad range of health care products for many other companies. None of these distributors is an end user of our products. Generally, if sales to any one of these distributors were to diminish or cease, we believe that the end users of our products would likely find little difficulty obtaining our products either directly from us or from another distributor. However, the loss of one or more of these distributors, together with a delay or inability to secure an alternative distribution source for end users, could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. There are generally three major negotiating entities in the US market. The Walgreens Boots Alliance Development (WBAD), which consists of Walgreens, AmerisourceBergen’s PRxO Generics program, and Econdisc members. Red Oak Sourcing which consists of CVS and Cardinal’s source program. Finally, ClarusOne which consists of Walmart, RiteAid and McKesson’s OneStop program. A loss of any of these major entities could result in a significant reduction in revenue.
 
We consider our business relationships with ABC, Cardinal and McKesson to be in good standing and have fee for services contracts with each of them. However, a change in purchasing patterns, a decrease in inventory levels, an increase in returns of our products, delays in purchasing products and delays in payment for products by one or more of these distributors could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We continue to analyze the market for other opportunities to expand our current relationships with other customers, while we continue to seek to diversify our existing portfolio of specialty generic drug products through internal research and development. In addition, we continue to explore business development opportunities to add additional products and /or capabilities to our existing portfolio.
 
Contract Manufacturing and Development Business. Our customers in the contract manufacturing business generally consist of pharmaceutical companies, as well as cosmetic and OTC product marketers, who require product development/manufacturing support. For the year ended December 31, 2019, approximately 54% of our contract services revenue was derived from pharmaceutical customers, as compared to 79% of total contract services revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. None of our contract manufacturing services customers represented 10% of total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2019 or December 31, 2018.
 
Concentration of Risk. In 2019, we had sales to two customers which accounted for more than 10% of our total revenue. These customers had sales of $17.6 million and $9.6 million respectively and represented 41% of total revenues in aggregate. Accounts receivable related to these two customers represented 31% of total accounts receivable as of December 31, 2019. In 2018, we had sales to three customers which individually accounted for more than 10% of our total revenue. These customers had sales of $21.2 million, $7.3 million and $6.9 million, respectively, and represented 54% of total revenues in the aggregate. Accounts receivable related to these major customers represented 30%, 19% and 19%, respectively, or 68% of all accounts receivable as of December 31, 2018.

Expansion into foreign operations in the fourth quarter of 2015 has generated net revenues greater than 10% outside of the United States. For the year ended December 31, 2019, domestic net revenues were $48.4 million and foreign net revenues
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were $17.5 million. As of December 31, 2019, domestic net assets were $154.3 million and foreign assets were $52.6 million. For the year ended December 31, 2018, domestic net revenues were $45.6 million and foreign net revenues were $20.2 million. As of December 31, 2018, domestic assets were $132.7 million and foreign assets were $58.2 million.
 
Our Products
 
Diflorasone Diacetate Ointment USP 0.05% accounted for 15% of the Company's total revenues in fiscal 2019. There was no product which individually accounted for more than 10% of the total revenues in 2018.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in 1977, and on May 7, 2008, our stockholders approved our name change from IGI, Inc. to IGI Laboratories, Inc. Effective October 23, 2015, we changed our name to Teligent Inc. Our principal offices are located at 105 Lincoln Avenue, Buena, New Jersey 08310. Our telephone number is (856) 697-1441. We maintain a website at www.teligent.com. We make available on or through our website our periodic reports that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. This information is available on our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with or furnish it to the SEC. The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference into this document and shall not be deemed “filed” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.


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Teligent United States Topical Pharmaceutical Products

ProductFormulationPresentationsBrand equivalentTherapeutic Classification
Betamethasone Dipropionate (Augmented), 0.05%Ointment15g, 50gDIPROLENE®Topical Corticosteroid
Betamethasone Dipropionate (Augmented), 0.05%Lotion30mL, 60mLDIPROLENE®Topical Corticosteroid
Ciclopirox 1%Shampoo120mLLoproxAnti-fungal
Clindamycin Phosphate 1%Topical Solution30mL, 60mLCleocin®Topical Anti-infective
Clobetasol Propionate 0.05%Lotion2oz, 4ozClobetasolTopical Corticosteroid
Clobetasol Propionate 0.05%Gel15g, 30g, 60gEmbeline®Topical Corticosteroid
Clobetasol Propionate 0.05%Ointment15g, 30g, 45g, 60gTemovate OintmentTopical Corticosteroid
Clobetasol Propionate 0.05%Cream15g, 30g, 45g, 60gTemovate CreamTopical Corticosteroid
Clobetasol Propionate Emollient 0.05%Cream15g, 30g, 45g, 60gTemovateE®Topical Corticosteroid
Desonide 0.05%Ointment15g, 60gDesonide OintmentTopical Corticosteroid
Desoximetasone 0.25% (1)Ointment15g, 60g, 100gTopicort®Topical Corticosteroid
Desoximetasone 0.05%Ointment15g, 30g, 60g, 100gTopicort®Topical Corticosteroid
Diclofenac Sodium 1.5%Topical Solution150mLPennsaid®Topical Anti-inflammatory
Diflorasone Diacetate 0.05%Ointment15g, 30g, 60gPSORCONCorticosteroid
Econazole Nitrate 1%Cream15g, 30g, 85gSpectazole®Topical Anti-fungal
Erythromycin 2%Gel30g, 60gErygel®Topical Corticosteroid
Erythromycin 2%Topical Solution60 mLErythromycin Topical Solution 2%Topical Corticosteroid
Fluocinolone Acetonide 0.01%Topical Solution60mLSynalar®Topical Corticosteroid
Fluocinolone Acetonide 0.01%Cream15g, 60gSynalar®Topical Corticosteroid
Fluocinolone Acetonide 0.025% Ointment15g, 60gSynalar®Topical Corticosteroid
Fluocinolone Acetonide 0.025% Cream15g, 60gSynalar®Topical Corticosteroid
Fluocinonide 0.05%Gel15g, 30g, 60gFluocinonide GelTopical Corticosteroid
Fluocinonide 0.05%Ointment15g, 30g, 60gLidexTopical Corticosteroid
Fluocinonide 0.1%Cream30g, 60g, 120gVanosTopical Corticosteroid
Fluocinonide 0.05%Cream15g, 30g, 60g, 120gFluocinonide CreamTopical Corticosteroid
Fluocinonide 0.05%Topical Solution20mL, 60mLLidexTopical Corticosteroid
Flurandrenolide 0.05%Ointment15g, 30g, 60gCordran®Topical Corticosteroid
Gentamicin Sulfate 0.1%Cream15g, 30gGaramycin CreamTopical Anti-infective
Gentamicin Sulfate 0.1%Ointment15g, 30gGentamicin OintmentTopical Anti-infective
Halobetasol Propionate 0.05%Ointment15g, 50gUltravateTopical Corticosteroid
Hydrocortisone Butyrate 0.1%Lotion118mL, 59 mLLocoid®Topical Corticosteroid
Hydrocortisone 2.5%Cream30g, 1lb jarHydrocortisone CreamTopical Steroid
Hydrocortisone 2.5%Lotion2oz Hydrocortisone LotionTopical Steroid
Lidocaine 4%Topical Solution50mLXylocaine®Topical Anesthetic
Lidocaine 5% Ointment35.44gXylocaine®Topical Anesthetic
Lidocaine/Prilocaine 2.5% / 2.5%Cream5g, 30gEMLA CreamLocal Anesthetic
Nystatin/Triam 100,000 Nystatin units/1mg per gramOintment15g, 30g, 60gMykacet®Topical Anti-fungal
Triamcinolone Acetonide 0.025%Lotion60mlTriamcinolone AcetonideTopical Corticosteroid
Triamcinolone Acetonide 0.1%Ointment15g, 80g, 1lb jarKenalog®Topical Corticosteroid
Triamcinolone Acetonide 0.1%Lotion60mLTriamcinolone AcetonideTopical Corticosteroid
Triamcinolone Acetonide 0.1%Cream15g, 30g, 80gKenalog®Topical Corticosteroid
Triamcinolone Acetonide 0.5%Ointment15gKenalog®Topical Corticosteroid








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Teligent United States Injectable Products
ProductStrengthFormulationPresentationsDossier type held by TeligentTherapeutic Classification
Cefotan (Cefotetan) ®1g, 2gInjectableVialNDAAntibacterial for systemic use
Fortaz (Ceftazidime) ® 500mg, 1g, 2g, 6gInjectableVial, Twist Vial, Frozen BagNDAAntibacterial for systemic use
Zantac (Ranitidine) ® 25mg/mlInjectable2ml, 6ml, 40ml VialsNDADrugs for peptic ulcer and gastro-oesophageal related disorders (GORD)
Zinacef (Cefuroxime) ™  750mg, 1.5g, 7.5gInjectableVial, Twist VialNDAAntibacterial for systemic use

Teligent Canada Products (1)
ProductStrengthFormulationPresentationsBrand equivalentDossier type held by TeligentTherapeutic Classification
Acetylcysteine200 mg/mLInjectable10mL and 30 mL vialMucomyst®ANDSAntidote
Atropine0.4 mg/mL, 0.6 mg/mLInjectable1 mL ampouleN/ADINAAntimuscarnic, antispasmodic
Baclofen0.05 mg/mL, 0.5mg/mL, 2mg/mLInjectable1mL, 5mL, 20mL ampouleLioresal®ANDSMuscle Relaxant
Clindamycin Phosphate Topical Solution USP1% w/vTopical Solution30 mL and 60 mL bottleDalacinT®ANDSTopical Antibiotic
Cyanocobalamin1000 mcg/mLInjectable1 mL ampoule, 10 mL vialN/ADINAHematopoietic
Diazepam5 mg/mLInjectable2mL ampouleValium®ANDSAxiolytic - sedative
Diclofenac Sodium Solution1.5% w/wTopical Solution150 mL, 60 mL bottlePennsaid®ANDSTopical Anti-inflammatory
Dimenhydrinate50 mg/mL, 250 mg/mLInjectable1 mL ampoule, 5 mL vialGravol®DINAAntiemtic
Dobutamine12.5 mg/mLInjectable20 mL vialN/AANDSSympathomimetic
Dorzolamide (2)0.02Opthalmic Solution5 mLTrusoptANDSElevated Intraocular Pressure Therapy
(Topical Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor)
Dorzolamide & Timolol (2)2% Dorzolamide and 0.5% TimololOpthalmic Solution5 ml & 10 mLCosoptANDSElevated Intraocular Pressure Therapy
(Topical Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor and Topical Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agent)
Epinephrine1 mg/mLInjectable1 mL ampouleAdrenalin®DINASympathomimetic
Ergonovine Maleate0.25 mg/mLInjectable1 mL ampouleN/ADINAOxytocic
Fentanyl50 mcg/mLInjectable2mL ampouleSublimaze®ANDSOpiate Anesthetic
Furosemide10 mg/mLInjectable2 mL ampouleLasix®ANDSDiuretic
Gemcitabine Hydrochloride10 mg, 200 mg, 1 gInjectable10 mg, 200 mg, 1 g vialGemzar®ANDSAntineoplastic agent
Gentamicin Sulfate10 mg/mL, 40 mg/mLInjectable2mL ampouleGaramycin®ANDSAntibiotic
Irinotecan Hydrochloride20 mg/mLInjectable2 mL, 5 mL, 15 mL, 25 mL vialCamptosar®ANDSAntineoplastic agent
Latanoprost (2)50 mcg/mLOpthalmic Solution2.5 mLXalatanANDSProstaglandin F2α analogue
Latanoprost & Timolol (2)50 mcg / mL Latanoprost andOpthalmic Solution2.5 mLXalacomANDSElevated Intraocular Pressure Therapy
Prostaglandin F2α Analogue and Beta-adrenergic Receptor Blocker
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ProductStrengthFormulationPresentationsBrand equivalentDossier type held by TeligentTherapeutic Classification
Lidocaine 1%10 mg/mLInjectable5 mL and 10 mL polyampoule, 5 mL glassXylocaine®DINALocal Anesthetic
Lidocaine 1% multidose10 mg/mLInjectable20 mL and 50 mL vialXylocaine®DINALocal Anesthetic
Lidocaine 2%20 mg/mLInjectable5 mL and 10 mL polyampouleXylocaine®DINALocal Anesthetic
Lidocaine 2% multidose20 mg/mLInjectable20 mL and 50 mL vialXylocaine®DINALocal Anesthetic
Lidocaine 2% with epinephrine20 mg/mL & 0.01 mg/mL  Injectable20 mL and 50 mL vialXylocaine®DINALocal Anesthetic
Lidocaine Hydrochloride Topical Solution USP 4%40 mg/mLTopical Solution50mL bottleXylocaine®DINATopical Anesthetic
Lidocaine Ointment USP 5%50 mg/gOintment35g tubeXylocaine®DINATopical Anesthetic
Methylene Blue10 mg/mLInjectable5mL ampouleN/ADINAAntidote
Naloxone0.4mg / mlInjectable1mL ampouleNarcan®ANDSOpitate Antagonist
Piperacillin and Tazobactam2g/0.25 g, 3 g/0.375 g, 4 g/0.5 gInjectable2.25 g, 3.375 g, 4.5 g vialTazocin®ANDSAntibacterial for systemic use
Sodium Cloride0.009Injectable10 mL polyampouleN/ADINADiluent
Sterile Water for Injection1Injectable10 mL polyampouleN/ADINADiluent
Succinylcholine Chloride20 mg/mLInjectable10 mL and 20 mL vialQuelicin®DINAMuscle Relaxant
Sufentanil Citrate Injection50 mcg/mLInjectable1 mL, 5 mL and 20 mL ampouleN/AANDSOpiate Anesthetic


(1) Table does not include Euflexxa®, which is not owned by Teligent Canada but is distributed and sold by Teligent Canada.
(2) Cross-licensed products registered under Teligent Canada Inc.

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Teligent United States Other Products

Below is a listing of the previously marketed products that were purchased from AstraZeneca and Valeant, along with a description of each respective formulation, presentation, brand equivalent, dossier and indication.

ProductStrengthFormulationPresentationsBrand equivalentDossier type held by TeligentTherapeutic Classification
Ciprofloxacin 0.3%  Ophthalmic Solution2.5ml, 5ml, 10ml bottlesCiloxan ®ANDAAntibacterial for systemic use
Betaxolol 0.5%  Ophthalmic Solution5ml, 7.5ml, 15ml bottlesBetopic ®ANDABeta Blocking Agent
Phytonadione 10mg, 1mgInjectable0.5ml, 1ml ampoules; 3cc, 6cc vialsAquaMephyton ®NDAHemostatic
Amikacin Sulfate 50mg/ml, 250mg/mlInjectable2ml, 4ml vialsAmikacin Sulfate ®ANDAAntibacterial for systemic use
Calcitonin Salmon  200IU/mlInjectable2ml vialsMiacalcin ®ANDAAnti-parathyroid Agent
Cefotetan Disodium  20mg/mlInjectable (bag)50ml bagsCefotetan ®NDAAntibacterial for systemic use
Clindamycin Phosphate 150mg/mlInjectable2ml, 4ml, 6ml, 60ml vials Cleocin ®ANDAAntibacterial for systemic use
Dobutamine HCl 12.5mg/mlInjectable20ml, 40ml vialsDobutamine HCl ®ANDACardiac Stimulant
Dopamine HCl 40mg/mlInjectable5ml, 10ml (vials and syringes)Dopamine HCl ®NDA / ANDACardiac Stimulant
Dopamine HCl 80mg/mlInjectable5ml, 10ml (vials, ampoules, and syringes)Dopamine HCl ®NDA / ANDACardiac Stimulant
Dopamine HCl 160mg/mlInjectable5ml (vials and ampoules)Dopamine HCl ®NDA / ANDACardiac Stimulant
Droperidol  2.5mg/mlInjectable10ml vials, 2ml and 5ml ampoules, and 2ml syringesInapsine ®ANDAAnti-Psychotic
Furosemide 10mg/mlInjectable2ml, 4ml, 8ml, and 10ml vials, 4ml and 10ml syringesFurosemide ®ANDADiuretic
MannitolUSP 25%Injectable50ml (vials and syringes)Mannitol ®ANDADiuretic
Meperidine HCl 25mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 75mg/ml, 100mg/mlInjectable1ml and 30ml vials, 1ml and 1.5ml ampoules, and 1ml syringesDemerol ®ANDASystemic analgesic
Midazolam HCl 5mg/mlInjectable2ml syringeMidazolam ®ANDASedative
Orphenadrine30 mg/mLInjectable2 mL ampuleOrphenadrine CitrateANDAMuscle Relaxant
Edrophonium10 mg/mLInjectable1 mL ampule and 10 mL vialEnlon®NDAAcetylcholinesterase inhibitor
MVI-12N/AInjectable10 mL ampules and 5 mL vialsN/ANDASystemic multivitamin
Naloxone HCl0.4 mg/mL, 1 mg/mLInjectable1 mL 5 mLand 10 mL vialsN/AANDAOpitate Antagonist
Naloxone HCl (preservative free)0.4 mg/mLInjectable1 mL vialsN/A ANDAOpitate Antagonist
Tobramycin Sulfate10 mg/mL, 40 mg/mLInjectable2 mLand 35 mL vialsN/AANDAAntibacterial for systemic use
Nalbuphine10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL  Injectable1 mL and 10 mL vialsNubain®ANDASystemic analgesic
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Our Suppliers
 
We require a supply of quality raw materials and components to manufacture and package pharmaceutical products for ourselves and third parties with which we have contracted. The principal components of our products are active and inactive pharmaceutical ingredients and certain packaging materials. The APIs and other materials and supplies used in our pharmaceutical manufacturing operations are generally available and purchased from many different U.S. and non-U.S. suppliers. However, in some cases, the raw materials used to manufacture pharmaceutical products are available only from a single supplier. Even when more than one supplier exists, we may choose, and in some cases have chosen, only to list one supplier in our applications submitted to the FDA. Any change in a supplier not previously approved must then be submitted through a formal approval process with the FDA.

Research and Development
 
Our R&D activities are integral to our business and are conducted at our facilities in Buena, New Jersey and Estonia. The R&D team is responsible for formulation, reverse engineering, methods development, analytical and microbiologic testing and scale up, and regulatory expertise. Our employees have specific expertise in developing injectable products and topical products in a wide range of dosage forms, including simple solutions through complex creams. All ANDA topical development is conducted in-house except for bioequivalence testing, which is performed by a contract research organization ("CRO"). Our injectable development is primarily conducted in house with some assistance from certain CRO's.
 
We incurred $10.8 million and $14.1 million in R&D expenses in 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Product Development and Government Regulation
 
United States
 
Prescription pharmaceutical products in the U.S. are generally marketed as either brand or generic drugs. Brand products are usually marketed under brand names through marketing programs that are designed to generate physician and consumer loyalty. Brand products are patent protected, which provides a period of market exclusivity during which time they are sold with little or no competition for the compound, although there typically are other participants in the therapeutic area. Additionally, brand products may benefit from other periods of non-patent market exclusivity available under various provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Exclusivity normally provides brand products with the ability to maintain their profitability for a period of time and brand products typically continue to play a significant role in the market due to physician and consumer loyalties after the end of patent protection or other market exclusivities.
 
Generic pharmaceutical products are the pharmaceutical and therapeutic equivalents of the brand product, also known as the reference listed drug, or RLD. A reference listed brand drug is an approved drug product listed in the FDA publication entitled Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, popularly known as the Orange Book. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, or the Hatch-Waxman Act, provides that generic drugs may enter the market after the approval of an ANDA. An ANDA approval requires that bioequivalence to the reference listed drug be demonstrated and also requires that any patents on the corresponding reference listed drug be expired, invalidated, non-infringed and/or any other relevant market exclusivity periods related to the reference listed drug be expired as well. Generic drugs are bioequivalent to their reference brand name counterparts. Accordingly, generic products provide a safe, effective and cost-efficient alternative to users of these reference brand products. Branded generic pharmaceutical products are generic products in that they are approved for marketing under an ANDA, but they may be more responsive to promotion efforts generally used to promote branded pharmaceutical products. Growth in the generic pharmaceutical industry has been, and will continue to be, driven by the increased market acceptance of generic drugs, as well as the number of brand drugs for which patent terms and/or other market exclusivities have expired.
 
We obtain new generic products primarily through internal product development. Additionally, we license or co-develop products through arrangements with other companies. All applications for FDA approval must contain information relating to product formulation, raw material suppliers, stability, manufacturing processes, packaging, labeling and quality control. Information to support the bioequivalence of generic drug products or the safety and effectiveness of new drug products for their intended use is also required to be submitted. There are generally two types of applications used for obtaining FDA approval of new products:
 
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New Drug Application — An NDA is filed when approval is sought to market a newly developed branded product and, in certain instances, for a new dosage form, a new delivery system or a new indication for a previously approved drug.

Abbreviated New Drug Application — An ANDA is filed when approval is sought to market a generic equivalent of a drug product previously approved under an NDA and listed in the FDA’s Orange Book (i.e., an
RLD) or for a new dosage strength for a drug previously approved under an ANDA.

The ANDA development process is generally less time-consuming and complex than the NDA development process. It typically does not require new preclinical and clinical studies, because it relies on the studies establishing safety and efficacy conducted for the RLD previously approved through the NDA process. The ANDA process, however, does typically require one or more bioequivalence studies to show that the ANDA drug is bioequivalent to the previously approved reference listed brand drug. Bioequivalence studies compare the bioavailability of the proposed drug product with that of the RLD product containing the same active ingredient. Bioavailability is a measure of the rate and extent to which the active ingredient or active moiety is absorbed from a drug product and becomes available at the site of action in a human patient. Thus, a demonstration of bioequivalence confirms the absence of a significant difference between the proposed product and the reference listed brand drug in terms of the rate and extent to which the active ingredient or active moiety becomes available at the site of drug action when administered at the same molar dose under similar conditions.
 
Generic products are generally introduced to the marketplace at the expiration of patent protection for the brand product or at the end of a period of non-patent market exclusivity. However, if an ANDA applicant files an ANDA containing a certification of invalidity, non-infringement or unenforceability related to a patent listed in the Orange Book with respect to the relevant RLD, the applicant may be able to market the generic equivalent prior to the expiration of patent protection for the brand product. Such patent certification is commonly referred to as a Paragraph IV certification. If the holder of the NDA sues, claiming infringement or invalidation, within 45 days of notification by the applicant, the FDA may not approve the ANDA application until the earlier of the rendering of a court decision favorable to the ANDA applicant or the expiration of 30 months. An ANDA applicant that is first to file a Paragraph IV certification is eligible for a period of generic marketing exclusivity. This exclusivity, which under certain circumstances may be required to be shared with other ANDA sponsors that have made Paragraph IV certifications, lasts for 180 days, during which the FDA cannot grant final approval to other ANDA applications for a generic equivalent to the same reference drug.
 
In addition to patent exclusivity, the holder of the NDA for the listed drug may be entitled to a period of non-patent market exclusivity, during which the FDA cannot approve an application for a generic version product. If the reference drug is a new chemical entity, the FDA may not accept an ANDA for a generic product for up to five years following approval of the NDA for the new chemical entity. If it is not a new chemical entity, but the holder of the NDA conducted clinical trials essential to approval of the NDA or a supplement thereto, the FDA may not approve an ANDA for a reference NDA product before the expiration of three years. Certain other periods of exclusivity may be available if the RLD is indicated for treatment of a rare disease (i.e., orphan drug exclusivity) or the sponsor conducts pediatric studies in accordance with FDA requirements.
 
Supplemental ANDAs are required to secure FDA for approval of various types of changes to an approved application and these supplements may be under review for six months or more. In addition, certain types of changes may only be approved once new bioequivalence studies are conducted or other requirements are satisfied.
 
An additional requirement for FDA approval of NDAs and ANDAs is that our manufacturing procedures and operations conform to FDA requirements and guidelines, generally referred to as current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMPs. The requirements for FDA approval encompass all aspects of the production process, including validation and recordkeeping, which are continuously changing and evolving.

In addition to generic products that are approved for marketing via ANDAs, Section 505(b)(2) of the FD&C Act permits the filing of an NDA where at least some of the information required for approval comes from studies not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference. A Section 505(b)(2) applicant may eliminate the need to conduct certain preclinical or clinical studies, if it can establish that reliance on studies conducted for a previously-approved product is scientifically appropriate. Unlike the ANDA pathway used for bioequivalent versions of brand products, which does not allow applicants to submit new clinical data other than bioavailability or bioequivalence data, the 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway does not preclude the possibility that a follow-on applicant would need to conduct additional clinical trials or nonclinical studies; for example, they may be seeking approval to market a previously approved drug for new indications or for a new patient population that would require new clinical data to demonstrate safety or effectiveness.

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Facilities, procedures, operations and/or testing of products are subject to periodic inspection by the FDA, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, or DEA, and other authorities. In addition, the FDA conducts pre-approval and post-approval reviews and plant inspections to determine whether our systems and processes are in compliance with cGMP and other FDA regulations. Our suppliers are subject to similar regulations and periodic inspections.
 
In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, or the FDASIA, was enacted into law. FDASIA is intended to enhance the safety and security of the U.S. drug supply chain by holding all drug manufacturers supplying products to the U.S. to the same FDA inspection standards and schedules.
 
FDASIA also included the Generic Drug User Fee Act (GDUFA), a novel user fee program focused on three key aims:
 
Safety – Ensure that industry participants, foreign or domestic, are held to consistent quality standards and are inspected with parity using a risk-based approach.

Access – Expedite the availability of generic drugs by bringing greater predictability to the review times for abbreviated new drug applications, amendments and supplements and improving timeliness in the review process.

Transparency – Enhance FDA’s visibility into the complex global supply environment by requiring the identification of facilities involved in the manufacture of generic drugs and associated APIs, and to improve the FDA’s communications and feedback with industry.

Under GDUFA, 70% of the total fees were derived from facility fees paid by Finished Dosage Form manufacturers and API facilities listed in pending or approved generic drug applications. The remaining 30% of the total fees were derived from application fees, including generic drug application fees, prior approval supplement fees and fees for certain types of Drug Master Files, or DMFs.
 
In August 2017, Congress passed and the President signed the FDA Reauthorization Act (FDARA). Among other provisions, FDARA included the second iteration of GDUFA, or “GDUFA II,” to reauthorize the collection of these user fees from industry for another 5 years, i.e., through September 2022. GDUFA II also made significant changes to the generic drug user fee program, including eliminating the fee for Prior Approval Supplements and creating a new Generic Drug Applicant Annual Program Fee, assessed based on the number of approved ANDAs owned by a company and its affiliates. The new Annual Program Fee is expected to account for approximately 62% of fees collected by FDA under GDUFA. In exchange, GDUFA II implements a number of elements to enhance communication between FDA and industry throughout the ANDA review process, thereby improving predictability and transparency and promoting the efficiency and effectiveness of the generic drug review process.

Canada
 
In Canada, the registration process for approval of all generic pharmaceuticals has two tracks that proceed in parallel. The first track of the process involves an examination of the proposed generic product by Health Canada, the federal department responsible for national public health, to ensure that the quality, safety and efficacy of the proposed generic product meets Canadian standards and bioequivalence requirements. The second track concerns patent rights of the brand drug owner. Companies may submit an application called an abbreviated new drug submission, or ANDS, to Health Canada that compares the proposed generic drug to another drug marketed in Canada under a Notice of Compliance, or NOC, issued to a first person. When Health Canada is satisfied that the generic pharmaceutical product described in the ANDS satisfies the statutory requirements, it issues an NOC for that product for the uses specified in the ANDS, subject to any court order that may be made in the second track of the approval process.
 
The second track of the approval process is governed by the Patented Medicines NOC Regulations, or the Regulations. We currently do not have any applications in development that would utilize this track.

Section C.08.004.1 of the Canadian Food and Drug Regulations is the so-called data protection provision, and the current version of this section applies in respect of all drugs for which an NOC was issued on or after June 17, 2006. A subsequent applicant for approval to market a drug for which an NOC has already been issued does not need to perform duplicate clinical trials similar to those conducted by the first NOC holder, but is permitted to demonstrate safety and efficacy by submitting data demonstrating that its formulation is bioequivalent to the formulation that was issued for the first NOC. The first party to obtain an NOC for a drug will have an eight-year period of exclusivity starting from the date it received
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its NOC based on those clinical data. A subsequent applicant for approval that seeks to establish safety and efficacy by comparing its product to the product that received the first NOC will not be able to file its own application until six years after the issuance of the first NOC. The Minister of Health will not be permitted to issue a NOC to that applicant until eight years after the issuance of the first NOC — this additional two-year period will correspond in most cases to the 24-month automatic stay under the Regulations. If the first person provides the Minister with the description and results of clinical trials relating to the use of the drug in pediatric populations, it will be entitled to an extra six months of data protection. A drug is only entitled to data protection so long as it is being marketed in Canada.
 
Facilities, procedures, operations and/or testing of products are subject to periodic inspection by Health Canada. In addition, Health Canada conducts pre-approval and post-approval reviews and plant inspections to determine whether our systems are in compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices in Canada, Drug Establishment Licensing requirements and other provisions of the Regulations. Competitors are subject to similar regulations and inspections.
 
The federal government, provinces and territories in Canada operate drug benefit programs through which eligible recipients receive drugs through public funding; these drugs are listed on provincial or territorial Drug Benefit Formularies (each, a “Formulary”). Eligible recipients include First Nations and Inuit clients, seniors, persons on social assistance, low-income earners, and those with certain specified conditions or diseases. Formulary listings are also used by private payors to reimburse generic products. To be listed in a Formulary, drug products must have received an NOC from Health Canada and must comply with each jurisdiction’s individual review process.
 
The primary regulatory approval for pharmaceutical manufacturers, distributors and importers selling pharmaceuticals to be marketed in Canada is the issuance of an establishment license, or EL. An EL is issued to a Canadian facility once Health Canada has approved the facilities in which the pharmaceuticals are manufactured, distributed or imported. A key requirement for EL-issuance is compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices as set out by Health Canada. For pharmaceuticals that are imported into Canada, the license for the Canadian importing facility must list all foreign sites at which imported pharmaceuticals, and their active ingredients, are manufactured and tested. To be listed on our EL, all our foreign sites must demonstrate compliance with relevant Good Manufacturing Practices recognized by Health Canada.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
We sell, distribute and market our prescription drug products to national chain drug stores and drug wholesalers and distributors and group purchasing organizations, or GPOs, in the United States and Canada. This commercialization infrastructure includes satisfying our state, provincial, territorial, or national licensing requirements, implementing procedures with our third-party logistics partners, and maintaining appropriate sales order to cash administrative processes and a manager of national accounts to manage our sales.
 
Competition
 
In our generic topical prescription drug business, we face competition from other generic drug manufacturers and brand-name pharmaceutical companies through authorized generics. Although there are a significant number of competitors in the generic drug market, there are fewer competitors in the topical generic drug market. The five dominant companies in the topical generic drug market are: Perrigo Company, Sandoz (the generic pharmaceutical division of Novartis AG), Taro Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd., Mylan N.V., and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. We believe the concentrated nature of the topical generic drug market creates an opportunity for us to be able to compete based on a variety of factors, including our focus on niche opportunities within the market segment and our dedication to quality in every area of our business.
 
In our generic injectable prescription drug business, we also face competition from other generic drug manufacturers and brand-name pharmaceutical companies through authorized generics. Although there are a significant number of competitors in the generic drug market, there are fewer dominant competitors in the injectable generic drug market. The five dominant companies in the injectable generic drug market in the United States consist of Grifols USA, Fresenius Kabi USA, Pfizer, Par and Hikma. In Canada, we face competition from largely the same firms as in the United States as well as certain Canada-only firms. The Canadian generic injectable market is dominated by Sandoz (the generic pharmaceutical division of Novartis AG), Pfizer Injectables and Fresenius Kabi Canada. 
 
Our generic injectable strategy is focused on injectable products with limited competition, and products that have a history of lack of supply, or instability in the supply chain, where we can add value and leverage on our ability to be a reliable supplier to the marketplace.  We believe the concentrated nature of some molecules within the injectable generic drug market, and history of lack of supply of certain molecules in the marketplace, create opportunities for us that we believe
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will enable us to compete based on a variety of factors, including our focus on niche opportunities within the market segment and our dedication to quality in every area of our business.
 
The contract manufacturing services market is highly competitive and includes larger organizations with substantially greater resources than us. Many of our competitors are companies that commercialize and/or manufacture their required products at their own facilities. These competitors include major pharmaceutical companies, generic drug manufacturers and consumer health product companies that generally have substantially greater manufacturing, R&D, marketing and financial resources than us and, in some cases, have more geographically diversified international operations. We compete specifically with a number of different privately held contract manufacturing companies. Although this market is competitive, the competition is limited due to the need for specific expertise in topical formulations and cGMP facilities. We believe that we have the expertise required and we will continue to service our existing customers in this market by providing high quality, customer-oriented service, complemented by our contract development expertise in topical formulations.
 
Environmental Matters
 
Our operations are subject to a variety of environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and equivalent state and local regulatory agencies. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, air emissions, wastewater discharges, the use, handling and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, soil and groundwater contamination and employee health and safety. Our manufacturing facility uses, in varying degrees, hazardous substances in its processes. Contamination at our facility can result and has resulted in liability to us, for which we have recorded appropriate reserves as needed. For example, two of the Company’s facilities have undergone remediation of environmental contamination.
 
Intellectual Property
 
To compete effectively, we need to develop and maintain a proprietary position with regard to our technology, product candidates and business. Our goal is to safeguard our trade secrets and know-how, attain, maintain and enforce patent protection for our product candidates, formulations, processes, methods and other proprietary technologies, and operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others. We seek to obtain, where appropriate, the broadest intellectual property protection possible for our current product candidates and any future product candidates, proprietary information and proprietary technology. We seek to achieve this protection through a combination of contractual arrangements and patents.
 
We depend upon the skills, knowledge, experience and know-how of our management and R&D personnel, as well as that of our consultants, advisors and collaborators. To help protect our proprietary know-how, which is not patentable, and for inventions for which patents may be difficult to enforce, we currently rely, and will continue to rely in the future, on confidentiality agreements to protect our interests. We require our employees, consultants, advisors and collaborators to enter into confidentiality agreements that prohibit the disclosure of confidential information to any other parties. We also require our employees and consultants to disclose and assign to us their ideas, developments, discoveries and inventions. We understand that these agreements may not provide us with adequate protection for our trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use or disclosure.
 
We also seek to obtain patent protection when necessary, and we understand that this may not provide us with complete protection against competitors who may attempt to circumvent our patents.
 
Facility and Operations
 
The Company’s executive administrative offices are located in Buena, New Jersey, in two facilities which originally were approximately 33,000 square feet built on 8.44 acres of land in 1995, which we own. In 2017 we acquired an additional 3.0 acres of adjacent land in support of our facility expansion. We now own a total of 11.44 acres at our Buena facility. This facility is used for production, product development, marketing and warehousing for our pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical and cosmetic products. We completed construction on an expansion of our Buena, New Jersey facility to total approximately 110,000 square feet. The expanded facility has increased our manufacturing capability for topical products and will also enable the production of sterile injectable products in both vial and ampule presentations upon FDA approval. The sterile production area is designed around isolator-based technology. Our capabilities encompass a full suite of competencies, including manufacturing, regulatory, quality assurance and in-house validation. We are using this facility expansion as an opportunity to secure our long-term growth in manufacturing and marketing injectable in the US and to upgrade and improve the degree of automation and capacity in our existing topical production suite.
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We operate our facility in accordance with cGMP. Our facility is registered with the FDA as a drug establishment. We believe that our facility and equipment are in good condition, are well-maintained and are able to operate at present levels. Our manufacturing operations are focused on regulatory compliance, continuous improvement, process standardization and excellence in quality and execution across the organization. On November 26, 2019, the FDA issued us a Warning Letter following an inspection of our manufacturing facility at 105 Lincoln Avenue, Buena, New Jersey, that identified several cGMP violations. We are continuing to work diligently to remediate all issues cited by the FDA and hope to close out this inspection in the coming months.

We lease additional warehouse space in Vineland, New Jersey, as needed to complement our existing warehouse capacity.
 
The Company also leases approximately 9,500 square feet of corporate office space in Iselin, New Jersey, approximately 4,000 square feet of office space in Mississauga, Canada and approximately 3,000 square feet of office and laboratory space in Tallinn, Estonia.
 
Employees
 
On December 31, 2019, we had a total of 252 full-time employees, including 14 full-time employees in Canada and 15 full-time employees in Estonia. In addition, as the need arises, we occasionally utilize short-term, part-time employees who are paid on an hourly basis. We also utilize temporary employees provided by third-parties on a regular basis, primarily in our production department. We do not have a collective bargaining agreement with our employees and we believe that our employee relations are good. 

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Item 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our current business and future results may be affected by a number of risks and uncertainties, including those described below. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only risks and uncertainties we face. It is not possible to predict or identify all risk factors that could impact us. For example, the current pandemic related to the COVID-19 coronavirus is causing a dramatic negative impact on the health of citizens globally which has negatively affected the economies and markets around the world. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, results of operations and financial condition could suffer. The risks discussed below also include forward-looking statements and our actual results may differ substantially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements.
 
Risks Related to Our Business

Our business may be adversely affected by the recent coronavirus outbreak.

In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus was reported to have surfaced in Wuhan, China. In January 2020, this coronavirus spread to other countries, including the United States, and efforts to contain the spread of this coronavirus intensified. The outbreak and any preventative or protective actions that governments or we may take in respect of this coronavirus may result in a period of business disruption, reduced customer traffic and reduced operations. Any resulting financial impact cannot be reasonably estimated at this time but may materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. The extent to which the coronavirus impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the coronavirus and the actions to contain the coronavirus or treat its impact, among others.


We may need to raise additional capital that will be required to operate and grow our business, and we may not be able to raise capital on terms acceptable to us or at all.

Operating our business and maintaining our growth efforts will require additional cash outlays and capital expenditures. If cash on hand and cash generated from operations are not sufficient to meet our cash requirements, we will need to seek additional capital, potentially through debt or equity financings, to fund our growth. We cannot assure you that we will be able to raise needed cash on terms acceptable to the Company, our significant stockholders, or at all. Financings may be on terms that are dilutive or potentially dilutive to our stockholders, and the prices at which new investors would be willing to purchase our securities may be lower than the current price per share of our common stock. The holders of new securities may also have rights, preferences or privileges which are senior to those of existing holders of common stock. If new sources of financing are required, but are insufficient or unavailable, we will be required to modify our growth and operating plans based on available funding, if any, which would harm our ability to grow our business or even stay in business. The equity and lending markets have been and will most likely continue to be negatively impacted for an unknown period of time due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

There is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

The following negative conditions and events raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern as of December 31, 2019:

We incurred significant losses and generated negative cash flows from operations in recent years and expect to continue to incur losses and generate negative cash flow for the foreseeable future. As a result, we had an accumulated deficit of $121.5 million. total principal amount of outstanding borrowings of $214.0 million, and limited capital resources to fund ongoing operations at December 31, 2019. Our available capital resources may not be sufficient for us to continue to meet our obligations as they become due over the next twelve months if we cannot improve our operating results or increase our operating cash inflows. In the event these capital resources are not sufficient, we may need to raise additional capital through the sale of equity or debt securities, enter into strategic business collaboration agreements with other companies, seek other funding facilities, or sell assets. However, we cannot provide assurances that additional capital will be available on acceptable terms or at all. Moreover, if we are unable to meet our obligations when they become due over the next twelve months through our available capital resources, or obtain new sources of capital when needed, we may have to delay expenditures, reduce the scope of manufacturing operations, reduce or eliminate one or more of our development programs, make significant changes to our operating plan, or cease operations.

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We are subject to certain financial covenants as set forth in the April 6, 2020 amendments to the Senior Credit Facilities. These financial covenants include a trailing twelve months (“TTM”) Minimum Revenue covenant that is required to be met each quarterly period from March 31, 2020 through December 31, 2020, a TTM Minimum Adjusted EBITDA that is required to be met each quarterly period from March 31, 2021 through maturity, and a minimum liquidity covenant tested at all times through the term of the agreement. These amendments supersede the financial covenants included in the original and amended agreements disclosed in Note 6 – Debt. In the event that we are unable to comply with these covenants, or obtain a waiver from our lenders, the lender shall have the right, but not the obligation, to permanently reduce the commitment in whole or in part or to declare all or any portion of the outstanding balance due and payable. Furthermore, in the event that outstanding balances under the Ares Credit agreements are declared due and payable by the lender, the lenders of the 2023 Series A and Series B Unsecured Convertible Notes shall have the right, but not the obligation, to declare all of the outstanding balance due and payable as well. We do not currently have available liquidity to repay these outstanding borrowings in the event of a default. If we are unable to raise additional capital to meet these obligations, we may have to seek other strategic alternatives, including ceasing our operations.

In June 2019, we received a de-listing notice from the NASDAQ due to our share price being below $1.00 for 30 consecutive trading days. The notice specified that our share price must trade above $1.00 per share for ten consecutive trading days prior to December 2, 2019 in order to prevent our common stock from being de-listed. For the 180 days preceding December 2, 2019, our share price remained below $1.00. We requested a second 180-day extension. NASDAQ denied our request and we chose to file for an appeal. We were granted a hearing date for the end of January 2020. Subsequent to the appeal hearing, NASDAQ set a deadline of April 17, 2020 for us to regain compliance with NASDAQ’s continuing listing requirements. In early March 2020, the COVID-19 global pandemic triggered a significant decline in global capital markets, including NASDAQ. In light of this significant decline, we requested NASDAQ to reconsider the April 17, 2020 deadline. NASDAQ agreed to our request and set a new deadline to regain compliance by June 1, 2020. In January 2020, our Board of Directors and shareholders approved a reverse stock split in the range of any whole number between five (5) and ten (10) to one (1). While we believe that the reverse stock split will ultimately increase our share price above $1.00 for the required ten consecutive trading days, we can provide no assurances that our shares will trade above $1.00 per share for the required time period. A de-listing from the NASDAQ would be a “Fundamental Change” under the Company’s 2023 Series A and Series B Unsecured Convertible Notes which triggers a right by the holders to require the Company repurchase the Convertible Notes. In such an event, the Company would need to seek financing to repurchase the Convertible Notes and there is no guarantee that such financing would be available or on terms acceptable to the Company. If noteholders demanded a repurchase of the notes and the Company could not finance the repurchase, it would be in default under the Indentures governing the Convertible Notes, and in that event the lenders of the Ares Credit agreements would have the right, but not the obligation, to declare all of the outstanding balance under those agreements due and payable as well. Therefore, in the event of the Company’s shares are de-listed from the NASDAQ, the Company would likely have to seek some combination of waivers from its lenders and noteholders and seek new capital through the sale of equity or debt securities. If the Company is unable to obtain such waivers or raise new capital to meet these obligations if they become due, it may have to seek other strategic alternatives, including ceasing operations.

We rely on a limited number of customers for a large portion of our revenues.
 
We depend on a limited number of customers for a large portion of our revenue. We have two customers that accounted for 41% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019, and three of our customers accounted for an aggregate of 54% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. The loss of one or more of these customers could have a significant impact on our revenues and harm our business, results of operations and cash flows.
 
Due to our dependence on a limited number of products, our business will be materially adversely affected if these products do not perform as well as expected.
 
We expect to generate a significant portion of our total revenues and gross margin from the sale of a limited number of products. While we continue to diversify our product portfolio, one of our products accounted for 15% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019. Any material adverse developments, including increased competition, loss of customers, pricing pressures and supply shortages, with respect to the sale or use of our products and prospective products, or our failure to successfully introduce such products, could have a material adverse effect on our revenues and gross margin.
 
The pharmaceutical industry in which we operate is intensely competitive. We are particularly subject to the pressures of direct competition. For example, the competition we encounter may have a negative impact upon the prices we may charge for our products, the market share of our products and our revenue and profitability.
 
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The pharmaceutical industry in which we operate is intensely competitive. The competition that we encounter has an effect on our product prices, market share, revenue and profitability. Depending upon how we respond to this competition, its effect may be materially adverse to us.
 
We compete with:
 
the original manufacturers of the brand-name equivalents of our generic products; and

other generic drug manufacturers.

Most of the products that we are developing are either generic drugs or products without patent protection. These drugs are therefore more subject to direct competition than patented products. In addition, because many of our competitors have substantially greater financial, production and research and development resources, substantially larger sales and marketing organizations, and substantially greater name recognition than we have, we are particularly subject to the risks inherent in competing with them. For example, many of our competitors may be able to develop products and processes competitive with, or superior to, our own. Furthermore, we may not be able to successfully develop or introduce new products that are less costly than those of our competitors or offer purchasers of our products payment and other commercial terms as favorable as those offered by our competitors.
 
Furthermore, in the current political climate in which drug prices are a focus of the current administration, Congress, government and private payors, and the public more broadly, we cannot predict whether new legislative, regulatory, or other measures related to drug pricing may be enacted. If enacted, such drug pricing measures could have an impact on our gross margins from product sales, which could significantly and adversely impact our financial condition and cash flows.

For example, on December 20, 2019, President Trump signed the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act for 2020 into law (P.L. 116-94) that includes a piece of bipartisan legislation called the Creating and Restoring Equal Access to Equivalent Samples Act of 2019 or the “CREATES Act.” The CREATES Act aims to address the concern articulated by both the FDA and others in the industry that some brand manufacturers have improperly restricted the distribution of their products, including by invoking the existence of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, for certain products, to deny generic product developers access to samples of brand products. Because generic product developers like our company need samples to conduct bioequivalence testing required by the FDA, some have attributed the inability to timely obtain samples as a cause of delay in the entry of generic products. To remedy this concern, the CREATES Act establishes a private cause of action that permits a generic product developer to sue the brand manufacturer to compel it to furnish the necessary samples on “commercially reasonable, market-based terms.” Whether and how generic product developers will use this new pathway, as well as the likely outcome of any legal challenges to provisions of the CREATES Act, remain highly uncertain and its potential effects on the market entry or timeline for our future commercial products are unknown.

As our competitors introduce their own generic equivalents of our generic pharmaceutical products, our revenues and gross margin from such products may decline, potentially rapidly.
 
Revenues and gross margin derived from generic pharmaceutical products often follow a pattern based on regulatory and competitive factors that we believe are unique to the generic pharmaceutical industry. As the patent(s) for a brand name product and the statutory marketing exclusivity period (if any) expires, the first generic manufacturer to receive regulatory approval for a generic equivalent of the product often is able to capture a substantial share of the market. However, as other generic manufacturers receive regulatory approvals for identical competing products, that market share, and the price of that product, may decline depending on several factors, including the number of competitors, the price of the brand product and the pricing strategy of the new competitors. In addition, the FDA has continued to shorten the review and response time to certain ANDAs, as a result of their guidelines established under GDUFA, and it has recently finalized policies to implement the Competitive Generic Therapy (“GCT”) designation pathway created by Congress in 2017 as part of FDARA. Based on these trends and regulatory developments, competitors could potentially enter the markets in which we compete more quickly. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to continue to develop such products or that the number of competitors with such products will not increase to such an extent that we may stop marketing a product for which we previously obtained approval, which may have a material adverse impact on our revenues and gross margin.

Our strategy depends on our ability to successfully develop and launch new pharmaceutical products ahead of our competitors.

Our continued growth is dependent upon our ability to develop and commercialize products in a timely manner. We may encounter delays in testing and manufacturing new pharmaceutical products, submitting applications for regulatory approval,
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receiving approval from the relevant authorities and commercializing new products. This process is costly and time-consuming. Delays at any stage could prevent us from successfully launching new products ahead of our competitors and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may delay our applications in both submissions and approvals.
 
If pharmaceutical companies are successful in limiting the use of generics through their legislative, regulatory and other efforts, sales of our generic products may be adversely impacted.
 
Many pharmaceutical companies increasingly have used state and federal legislative and regulatory means to delay generic competition. These efforts have included:
 
pursuing new patents for existing products that may be granted just before the expiration of earlier patents, which could extend patent protection for additional years or otherwise delay the launch of generics;

selling the brand product as an “authorized generic,” either by the brand company directly, through an affiliate or by a marketing partner;

using the Citizen Petition process to request amendments to FDA standards or otherwise delay generic drug approvals;

seeking changes to the U.S. Pharmacopeia, an FDA, and industry recognized compendia of drug standards;

attaching patent extension amendments to non-related federal legislation;

engaging in state-by-state initiatives to enact legislation that restricts the substitution of some generic drugs, which could have an impact on products that we are developing; and

seeking patents on methods of manufacturing certain active pharmaceutical ingredients.

If pharmaceutical companies or other third parties are successful in limiting the use of generic products through these or other means, our sales of our generic products may decline. If we experience a material decline in generic product sales, our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows may be significantly and adversely impacted.
 
Our generics business also faces increasing competition from brand-name manufacturers that do not face any significant regulatory approval or other barriers to enter into the generics market.
 
Our generics business also faces increasing competition from brand-name manufacturers that do not face any significant regulatory approval or other barriers to enter into the generics market. These brand-name companies sell “authorized generic” versions of their products to the market directly, acquire or form strategic alliances with our competitor generic pharmaceutical companies, or grant them rights to sell “authorized generics.” Moreover, brand-name companies continually seek new ways to delay the introduction of generic products and decrease the impact of generic competition, such as filing new patents on drugs whose original patent protection is about to expire, developing patented controlled-release products, changing product claims and product labeling, or developing and marketing as over-the-counter products those branded products that are about to face generic competition, when feasible. Our competitors, which include major multinational corporations, are consolidating in both the branded and generics industries, and the strength of the combined companies could affect our competitive position in all of our business areas. Furthermore, if one of our competitors or its customers acquires any of our customers or suppliers, we may lose business from the customer or lose a supplier of a critical raw material.
Our business and operations have experienced rapid growth, and if we do not appropriately manage any future growth, our business will be adversely affected.

We have experienced rapid growth over the last several years, and additional growth through acquisitions is possible in the future. Such growth has put significant demands on our management and infrastructure. Our success will depend in part upon our ability to manage this growth effectively. As we continue to grow, we must improve our operational, financial and management controls and our reporting systems and procedures. We must ensure that our policies and procedures evolve to reflect our current operations. We must also continue to effectively manage existing employees and to hire, train and manage new employees as needed. Any failure to expand these areas and implement appropriate procedures and controls in an efficient manner and at a pace consistent with our business objectives could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may introduce additional challenges in the retention and hiring of key personnel.
 
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Sales of our products may continue to be adversely affected by the continuing consolidation of our distribution network and the concentration of our customer base. The result of such developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common stock to decline.
 
Our principal customers are wholesale drug distributors and major retail drug store chains. These customers comprise a significant part of the distribution network for pharmaceutical products in the U.S. This distribution network is continuing to undergo significant consolidation marked by mergers and acquisitions, alliances and partnerships among wholesale distributors and the growth of large retail drug store chains. As a result, a small number of large wholesale distributors control a significant share of the market, and the number of independent drug stores and small drug store chains has decreased. We expect that consolidation of drug wholesalers and retailers will increase pricing and other competitive pressures on drug manufacturers. In addition, the Company generally does not enter into long-term supply agreements with its customers that would require them to purchase our products. The result of these developments may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial position and results of operations, and could cause the market value of our common stock to decline.
 
We face intense competition in the consumer products business.
 
Our business competes with large, well-financed cosmetic, pharmaceutical and consumer products companies with development and marketing groups that are experienced in the industry and possess far greater resources than those available to us. There is no assurance that we can compete successfully against our competitors or that we can develop and market products that will be favorably received in the marketplace.
 
Lack of availability, issues with quality or significant increases in the cost of raw materials used in manufacturing our products could adversely impact our profit margins and operating results.
 
Affordable, high quality raw materials and packaging components are essential to our business due to the nature of the products we manufacture. Raw materials and packaging components are generally available from multiple suppliers. Supplies of certain raw materials, and finished goods purchased by us are limited, or are available from one or only a few suppliers that have been pre-approved by the FDA for use in the manufacture of our products. In this type of limited-supplier situation, increased prices, rationing and/or shortages can occur. In response to the situation, we try to identify alternative materials or suppliers for such raw materials and finished goods like containers and closures. However, FDA requirements for products approved through the ANDA or NDA process could substantially lengthen the time for approval of an alternate material source. Certain material shortages and approval of alternate sources could adversely affect our financial results. The rapid increase in cost of many raw materials from inflationary forces, such as increased energy costs, and our ability or inability to pass on these increases to our customers, could have a material impact on our financial results.
 
In addition, raw materials purchased from third parties, including those from foreign countries, may contain counterfeit ingredients or other adulterants. We maintain a strict program of verification and product testing throughout the ingredient sourcing and manufacturing process to identify potential counterfeit ingredients, adulterants and toxic substances. Nevertheless, discovery of previously unknown problems with the raw materials or product manufacturing processes or new data suggesting an unacceptable safety risk associated therewith, could result in a voluntary or mandatory withdrawal of a potentially contaminated product from the marketplace, either temporarily or permanently. In addition, because regulatory authorities must generally approve raw material sources for pharmaceutical products, changes in raw material suppliers or the quality of their products may result in production delays or higher raw material costs. Also, any future recall or removal would result in additional costs to us, and may give rise to product liability or other litigation, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
 
Our products, and the raw materials used to make those products, generally have limited shelf lives. Our inventory levels are based, in part, on expectations regarding future sales. We may experience build-ups in inventory if sales slow. Any significant shortfall in sales may result in higher inventory levels of raw materials and finished products, thereby increasing the risk of inventory spoilage and corresponding inventory write-downs and write-offs, which may materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Additionally, labeling changes required for regulatory compliance could render packaging inventories obsolete. Cargo thefts and/or diversions and economically or maliciously motivated product tampering in store shelves may be experienced from time to time, causing unexpected shortages.
 
The recent COVID-19 pandemic may introduce new challenges in sourcing raw materials for our products either from our existing or new suppliers and may negatively influence the cost of these raw materials.

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We depend on a limited number of suppliers for API. Generally, only a single source of API is qualified for use in each product due to the costs and time required to validate a second source of supply. Changes in API suppliers must usually be approved by the FDA through a Prior Approval Supplement to each ANDA.
 
We maintain several single-source supplier relationships, either because alternative sources are not available or because the relationship is advantageous due to regulatory, performance, quality, support, or price considerations. Unavailability or delivery delays of single-source components or products could adversely affect our ability to ship the relevant product in a timely manner. The effect of unavailability or delivery delays would be more severe if associated with our higher volume or more profitable products. Even where alternative sources of supply are available, qualifying the alternate suppliers and establishing reliable supplies could cost more or could result in delays and a loss of revenues. As a result, the loss of a single-source supplier could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may create local issues for our single source API suppliers and introduce delays in our manufacturing process.
 
Incidents related to hazardous materials could materially adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
 
There are portions of our operations that require the controlled use of hazardous materials. Although we are diligent in designing and implementing safety procedures to comply with the standards prescribed by federal, state, and local regulations, the risk of accidental contamination of property or injury to individuals from these materials cannot be completely eliminated. In the event of such an incident, we could be liable for any damages that result, which could materially adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
 
We are subject to stringent regulatory requirements related to environmental protection and hazardous waste disposal. Failure to adhere to such requirements could harm our business and results of operations.

In the United States, we and our suppliers of raw materials are also subject to regulation under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and other current and potential future federal, state or local regulations. Failure to adhere to such regulations, by either us or our suppliers, could harm our business and results of operations. In addition, our analytical department uses certain hazardous materials and chemicals in limited and controlled quantities. We have implemented safety procedures for handling and disposing of such materials, however, such procedures may not comply with the standards prescribed by federal, state and local regulations. Even if we follow such safety procedures for handling and disposing of hazardous materials and chemicals and such procedures comply with applicable law, the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be completely eliminated. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for any damages and any such liability could exceed our resources.
 
Our operations and properties are also subject to a wide variety of increasingly complex and stringent federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including those governing the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. Such environmental laws may apply to conditions at properties and facilities presently or formerly owned or operated by us, as well as to conditions at properties at which wastes or other contamination attributable to us have been sent or otherwise come to be located. One of our facilities has undergone remediation of environmental contamination, and one of our facilities is currently undergoing remediation of environmental contamination. The total estimated costs for the clean-up and remediation is $0.9 million as of December 31, 2019, and remaining costs accrued at December 31, 2019 totaled $0.1 million. Based on information provided to us from our environmental consultants and what is known to date, we believe the reserves are sufficient for the remaining remediation of the environmental contamination. There is a possibility, however, that the remediation costs may exceed our estimates. In addition, we can give no assurance that the future cost of compliance with existing environmental laws will not give rise to additional significant expenditures or liabilities that would be material to us. Future events, such as new information, changes in existing environmental laws or their interpretation, and more vigorous enforcement policies of federal, state or local regulatory agencies, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
In Canada, we and our suppliers of raw materials are also subject to regulation under the Hazardous Products Act, Controlled Products Regulations, Consumer Product Safety Act. Canadian Environmental Protection Act and other current and potential future federal, provincial/territorial or local regulations. Failure to adhere to such regulations, by either us or our suppliers, could harm our business and results of operations. In addition, our analytical department uses certain hazardous materials and chemicals in limited and controlled quantities. We have implemented safety procedures for handling and disposing of such materials, however, such procedures may not comply with the standards prescribed by federal, provincial/territorial and local regulations. Even if we follow such safety procedures for handling and disposing of hazardous materials and chemicals and such procedures comply with applicable law, the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be
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completely eliminated. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for any damages and any such liability could exceed our resources.
 
Future events, such as new information, changes in existing environmental laws or their interpretation, and more vigorous enforcement policies of federal, provincial/territorial or local regulatory agencies, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We are subject to extensive government regulation by the FDA and other federal, state and local regulatory authorities that increases our costs and could prevent us from marketing or selling our products.
 
The manufacturing, processing, formulation, packaging, labeling, testing, storing, distributing, marketing, advertising and sale of our products, among other things, are subject to extensive regulation by one or more U.S. agencies, including the FDA, the Federal Trade Commission and the Consumer Products Safety Commission, as well as by several state and local agencies in localities where our products are stored, distributed or sold. In addition, we manufacture and market certain of our products in accordance with standards set by organizations, such as the USP, a scientific nonprofit organization that sets standards for the identity, strength, quality, and purity of medicines, food ingredients, and dietary supplements manufactured, distributed and consumed worldwide. USP’s drug standards are enforceable in the United States by the FDA.

The FDA regulates the testing, manufacture, labeling, marketing and sale of pharmaceutical products. Approval by the FDA is required before any new drug, including any new generic drug, may be marketed or sold in the United States. In order to receive approval from the FDA for our product candidates that are generic versions of brand-name drugs, we intend to use the Abbreviated New Drug Application, or ANDA, route, which requires us to demonstrate to the FDA that each generic product candidate has the same active ingredient, strength, dosage form, route of administration and intended use as a corresponding approved drug product and is bioequivalent to the branded drug product (approved under a New Drug Application, or NDA), meaning that there is no significant difference between the drugs in their rate and extent of absorption in the body. However, if the FDA determines that an ANDA for a generic drug product is not adequate to support approval, it could deny our application or request additional data or information, which could delay approval of the product and impair our ability to compete with the brand-name drug product and/or other generic versions of the product.
 
If our product candidates receive FDA approval through the ANDA process, the labeling claims and marketing statements that we can make for our generic drugs are generally limited to the claims approved by the FDA for use in the brand-name product’s label. In addition, following regulatory approval, the labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising and promotion for the product will be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements.
 
As a manufacturer of pharmaceutical products, we must also comply with cGMPs, or current Good Manufacturing Practices, which include requirements related to production processes, quality control and assurance and recordkeeping. Our manufacturing facilities and procedures and those of our suppliers are subject to periodic inspection by the FDA and foreign regulatory agencies. Any material deviations from pharmaceutical cGMPs or other applicable requirements identified during such inspections may result in recalls or other enforcement actions, including warning letters, a delay or suspension in manufacturing operations, consent decrees or civil or criminal penalties. Further, discovery of previously unknown problems with a product or manufacturer may result in restrictions or sanctions, including suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals, seizures or recalls of products from the market, or civil or criminal fines or penalties, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our products. On November 26, 2019 FDA issued us a Warning Letter following an inspection of our manufacturing facility at 105 Lincoln Avenue, Buena, New Jersey, that identified several cGMP violations. We are continuing to work diligently to remediate all issues cited by the FDA and hope to close out this inspection in the coming months.

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has introduced additional strain on the FDA. We are unable to fully understand the impact this may cause on regulations or the related timeframes pertaining to communication with the FDA.
 
We are subject to extensive government regulation by Health Canada and other federal, state provincial/territorial and local regulatory authorities that increases our costs and could prevent us from marketing or selling our products.
 
The manufacturing, processing, formulation, packaging, labeling, testing, storing, distributing, marketing, advertising and sale of our products, among other things, are subject to extensive regulation by one or more Canadian agencies, including Health Canada, as well as by several state and local agencies in localities where our products are stored, distributed or sold. In addition, we market certain of our products in accordance with standards set by organizations, such as the USP, the British Pharmacopeia, or BP, scientific nonprofit organizations that sets standards for the identity, strength, quality, and purity of
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medicines, food ingredients, and dietary supplements manufactured, distributed and consumed worldwide. Adherence to USP and BP published drug standards are prescribed by the Canadian Food and Drug Regulations.

Health Canada regulates the testing, manufacture, labeling, marketing and sale of pharmaceutical products. Approval by Health Canada is required before any new drug, including any new generic drug, may be marketed or sold in Canada. In order to receive approval from Health Canada for our product candidates that are generic versions of brand-name drugs, we intend to use the ANDS, or Drug Identification Number Application, or DINA, routes, which requires us to demonstrate to Health Canada that each generic product candidate has the same active ingredient, strength, dosage form, route of administration and intended use as a corresponding approved drug product and is bioequivalent to the branded drug product (approved under a New Drug Submission or NDS or DINA, meaning that there is no significant difference between the drugs in their rate and extent of absorption in the body. However, if Health Canada determines that an ANDS or DINA for a generic drug product is not adequate to support approval, it could deny our application or request additional data or information, which could delay approval of the product and impair our ability to compete with the brand-name drug product and/or other generic versions of the product.
 
If our product candidates receive Health Canada approval through the ANDS or DINA process, the labeling claims and marketing statements that we can make for our generic drugs are generally limited to the claims approved by Health Canada for use in the brand-name product’s label. In addition, following regulatory approval, the labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising and promotion for the product will be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements.
 
As an importer and distributor of pharmaceutical products, we must also comply with cGMPs, or current Good Manufacturing Practices, which include requirements related to production processes, quality control and assurance and recordkeeping. Our facilities and procedures and those of our suppliers are subject to periodic inspection by Health Canada and foreign regulatory agencies. Any material deviations from pharmaceutical cGMPs or other applicable requirements identified during such inspections may result in recalls or other enforcement actions, including non-compliance ratings, a delay or suspension in manufacturing operations. Further, discovery of previously unknown problems with a product or manufacturer may result in restrictions or sanctions, including suspension or withdrawal of marketing approvals, seizures or recalls of products from the market, and revoking of licenses, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our products.

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has introduced additional strains on Health Canada. We are unable to fully understand the impact this may cause on regulations or the related timeframes pertaining to communication with Health Canada.

Inadequate resources for the FDA, the SEC and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, prevent new products and services from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of the SEC and other government agencies on which our operations may rely, including those that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the SEC, have had to furlough critical FDA, SEC and other government employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Further in our operations as a public company, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

The introduction of the recent COVID-19 pandemic has increased the strain on the FDA, SEC and other government agencies which may increase the likelihood of delays in normal business functions.

We may be subject to, or may in the future become subject to, U.S. federal and state, and foreign laws and regulations imposing obligations on how we collect, use, disclose, store and process personal information. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could result in liability or reputational harm and could harm our business. Ensuring compliance with such laws could also impair our efforts to maintain and expand our customer base, and thereby decrease our revenue.

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In many activities, including the conduct of clinical trials, we are subject to laws and regulations governing data privacy and the protection of health-related and other personal information. These laws and regulations govern our processing of personal data, including the collection, access, use, analysis, modification, storage, transfer, security breach notification, destruction and disposal of personal data. We must comply with laws and regulations associated with the international transfer of personal data based on the location in which the personal data originates and the location in which it is processed. In May 2016, the EU Parliament adopted the comprehensive General Data Privacy Regulation, or the GDPR to, among other things, impose more stringent data protection requirements for processors and controllers of personal data and provide for greater penalties and fines for noncompliance, including fines in amounts up to €20 million or 4% of total worldwide annual turnover, whichever is higher. The GDPR became fully effective in May 2018. In addition, in 2018, California adopted a new privacy law (effective on January 1, 2020) that borrows heavily from the GDPR. Complying with the enhanced obligations imposed by the GDPR and other applicable international and US privacy laws and regulations may result in significant costs to our business and require us to amend certain of our business practices. Further, enforcement actions and investigations by regulatory authorities related to data security incidents and privacy violations continue to increase. The future enactment of more restrictive laws, rules or regulations and/or future enforcement actions or investigations could have a materially adverse impact on us through increased costs or restrictions on our businesses, and noncompliance could result in regulatory penalties and significant legal liability.

The privacy and security of personally identifiable information stored, maintained, received or transmitted, including electronically, subject to significant regulation in the United States and abroad. While we strive to comply with all applicable privacy and security laws and regulations, legal standards for privacy continue to evolve and any failure or perceived failure to comply may result in proceedings.

Our global operations expose us to certain risks, including challenges associated with political and economic instability, major hostilities and acts of terrorism.

We are a global company with operations outside of the United States. We face numerous risks inherent in conducting business internationally, including terrorist acts, acts of war, political unrest, public health concerns, labor disputes and national disasters. Such events may lead to economic and political uncertainties and contribute to global economic instability. We may not be successful in developing and implementing policies and strategies to address the foregoing events in a timely and effective manner. Consequently, the occurrence of one or more of the foregoing events could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition, including loss of sales or customers. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has introduced greater risks with foreign political and economic instability.
 
Violations of cGMP and other government regulations could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
All facilities and manufacturing techniques used to manufacture pharmaceutical products for clinical use or for commercial sale in the United States and other Teligent markets must be operated in conformity with cGMP regulations as required by the FDA and other regulatory bodies. Our suppliers’ facilities are subject to scheduled periodic regulatory and customer inspections to ensure compliance with cGMP and other requirements applicable to such products. A finding that we or one or more of our suppliers had materially violated these requirements could result in one or more regulatory sanctions, loss of a customer contract, disqualification of data for client submissions to regulatory authorities and a mandated closing of our suppliers’ facilities, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
 
During our efforts to expand our existing manufacturing facility, as well as potentially select and build out an additional manufacturing facility, we could experience business interruptions, as well as incur significant capital expenditures to complete the expansions, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
 
We manufacture drug products at one domestic manufacturing facility. This facility may be forced to shut down or may be unable to operate at full capacity as a result of potential expansion plans. A significant disruption at this facility, even on a short-term basis, could impair our ability to produce and ship drug products to the market on a timely basis, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
 
We could experience business interruptions at our manufacturing facility, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
 
We manufacture drug products at one domestic manufacturing facility. This facility may be forced to shut down or may be unable to operate at full capacity as a result of hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, storms and other extreme weather events as
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well as strikes, war, violent upheavals, terrorist acts, pandemics and other force majeure events. A significant disruption at this facility, even on a short-term basis, could impair our ability to produce and ship drug products to the market on a timely basis, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations through possible failure to supply fees or lost business opportunities. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may force us to temporarily close our production facility due to local, state or federal requirements.

We are currently in the process of expanding our manufacturing facilities. Any delays in the expansion process or in the receipt of certain regulatory approvals in connection therewith could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We are in the process of expanding and upgrading our existing manufacturing facilities in Buena, New Jersey.  Upon the completion of this expansion, we intend to transfer the manufacture of certain sterile injectables, for which we currently rely on CMOs, to this facility.  Any delays in the expansion process could increase the overall cost of the expansion and could force us to postpone the planned transfer of our manufacturing to this facility.  In addition, any delays or denials of the regulatory approvals needed to begin manufacturing products at this facility could have a material adverse effect on our business. As previously noted, on November 26, 2019 FDA issued us a Warning Letter following an inspection of our manufacturing facility at 105 Lincoln Avenue, Buena, New Jersey, that identified several cGMP violations and for which we are continuing diligent remediation activities. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may cause delays in the remediation and re-inspection process.

Our reporting and payment obligations related to our participation in federal health care programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, are complex and often involve subjective decisions that could change. Any failure to comply with those obligations could subject us to investigation, penalties, and sanctions.
 
Federal laws regarding reporting and payment obligations with respect to a pharmaceutical company’s participation in federal health care programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, are complex. These programs generally require us to pay rebates or provide discounts to government payors in connection with our products that are dispensed to beneficiaries of these programs. In some cases, such as with the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, the rebates are based on pricing and rebate calculations that we report on a quarterly basis to the government agencies that administer the programs. Because our processes for calculating applicable government prices and the judgments involved in making these calculations involve subjective decisions and complex methodologies, these calculations are subject to risk of errors and differing interpretations. In addition, they are subject to review and challenge by the applicable governmental agencies, and it is possible that such reviews could result in changes that may have material adverse legal, regulatory, or economic consequences. Responding to current and future changes may increase our costs and the complexity of compliance will be time-consuming, and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. For example, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“DHHS”) issued a proposed rule that would remove safe harbor protections for certain rebates. Given the complexity of the drug pricing systems in the United States, DHHS is also soliciting input on multiple issues and other proposals as part of this formal rulemaking process, and the timeline for any final government action could be lengthy. It is unclear what changes a DHHS final rule, if any, would make to the current drug rebate rules for Medicare and Medicaid programs, and what the potential impact of such changes would be to our business or operations.
 
In addition, the Office of Inspector General has recently increased its focus on the methodologies used by manufacturers to calculate the average manufacturer price, or AMP, and best price, or BP, to assess manufacturer compliance with reporting requirements under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. We are liable for errors associated with our submission of pricing data and for overcharging government payors. For example, failure to submit quarterly AMP and BP data on a timely basis could result in a civil monetary penalty of $10,000 per day for each day the submission is late beyond the due date. Failure to make necessary disclosures and/or to identify overpayments could result in allegations against us under the Federal False Claims Act and other laws and regulations.
 
Our policies regarding returns, allowances and chargebacks, failure to supply penalties and marketing programs adopted by wholesalers may reduce revenues in future fiscal periods.
 
We, like other generic drug manufacturers, have agreements with customers allowing chargebacks, product returns, administrative fees, failure to supply penalties and other rebates. Under many of these arrangements, we may match lower prices offered to customers by competitors. If we choose to lower our prices and if contractually obligated, we issue a credit on the products that the customer is holding in inventory, which could reduce sales revenue and gross margin for the period the credit is provided. Under many of these arrangements, we may have failure to supply penalties, which in the event we are unable to supply a certain product and are unable to meet the needs of our customers, we may incur failure to supply penalties which may be significant. Like our competitors, we also give credits for chargebacks to wholesalers with whom we have contracts for their sales to hospitals, group purchasing organizations, pharmacies or other customers. A chargeback is the difference between the price at which we invoice the wholesaler and the price that the wholesaler’s end-customer pays for a
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product. Although we establish reserves based on prior experience and our best estimates of the impact that these policies may have in subsequent periods, we cannot ensure that our reserves are adequate or that actual product returns, allowances, and chargebacks will not exceed our estimates. As we continue to experience the consolidation of our customers, which may result in changes to previous patterns of ordering and/or pricing of our products, this could disrupt our established methodologies for calculating our provisions for chargebacks and other accruals.
 
We are subject to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse and false claims laws and may be subject to related litigation brought by the government or private individuals.
 
We are subject to state and federal healthcare laws pertaining to fraud and abuse, physician payment transparency and laws that govern the submission of claims for reimbursement. These laws include the following:
 
the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act;

the federal False Claims Act, or FCA, which imposes civil liability and criminal fines on individuals or entities that knowingly submit, or cause to be submitted, false or fraudulent claims for payment to the government. The FCA also allows private individuals to bring a suit on behalf of the government against an individual or entity for violations of the FCA. These suits, also known as qui tam actions, may be brought by, with only a few exceptions, any private citizen who believes that he has material information of a false claim that has not yet been previously disclosed. These suits have increased significantly in recent years because the FCA allows an individual to share in any amounts paid to the federal government in fines or settlement as a result of a successful qui tam action;

federal criminal laws that prohibit executing a scheme to defraud any federal healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

the federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act, which requires manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to report annually to the government information related to payments or other “transfers of value” made to a “covered recipient,” which include physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, and beginning in 2022, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse-midwives following an expansion of the law by Congress in 2018. Applicable manufacturers and group purchasing organizations also must report annually ownership and investment interests held by physicians (as defined above) and their immediate family members and payments or other “transfers of value” to such physician owners and their immediate family members;

the US federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA that imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any health care benefit program, or knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for health care benefits, items or services; similar to the US federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;

the US federal laws that require pharmaceutical manufacturers to report certain calculated product prices to the government or provide certain discounts or rebates to government authorities or private entities, often as a condition of reimbursement under federal health care programs;

HIPAA, which imposes obligations on certain covered entity health care providers, health plans, and health care clearinghouses as well as their business associates that perform certain services involving the use or disclosure of individually identifiable health information, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information; and

state and foreign laws that govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, including state security breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws and federal and state consumer protection laws,
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many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts;

analogous state and foreign laws and regulations relating to health care fraud and abuse, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, that may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving health care items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers;


state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

If our past or present operations are found to be in violation of any of such laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from federal health care programs, and/or the curtailment or restructuring of our operations. Any penalties, damages, fines, curtailment, or restructuring of our operations could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results, action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against them, it could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business.

Our business activities may be subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws of other countries in which we operate.

We have conducted and have ongoing studies in international locations, and may in the future initiate additional studies in countries other than the United States. Our business activities may be subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and similar anti-bribery or anti-corruption laws, regulations or rules of other countries in which we operate. The FCPA generally prohibits offering, promising, giving or authorizing others to give anything of value, either directly or indirectly, to a non-U.S. government official in order to influence official action or otherwise obtain or retain business. The FCPA also requires public companies to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the corporation and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Our business is heavily regulated and therefore involves significant interaction with public officials, including officials of non-U.S. governments. Additionally, in many other countries, the health care providers who prescribe pharmaceuticals are employed by their governments, and the purchasers of pharmaceuticals are government entities; therefore, our dealings with these prescribers and purchasers are subject to regulation under the FCPA. Recently the SEC and Department of Justice have increased their FCPA enforcement activities with respect to biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. There is no certainty that all of our employees, agents or contractors, or those of our affiliates, will comply with all applicable laws and regulations, particularly given the high level of complexity of these laws. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, the closing down of our facilities, requirements to obtain export licenses, cessation of business activities in sanctioned countries, implementation of compliance programs and prohibitions on the conduct of our business. Any such violations could include prohibitions on our ability to offer our products, if approved, in one or more countries and could materially damage our reputation, our brand, our international expansion efforts, our ability to attract and retain employees and our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.
 
Healthcare legislative reform measures may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
 
In the United States, there have been and continue to be a number of legislative initiatives to contain healthcare costs. For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or the Affordable Care Act, was passed, which substantially changes the way health care is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and significantly impacts the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The Affordable Care Act, among other things, addresses a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected, increases the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and extends the rebate program to individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations.

There also continues to be uncertainty that any provisions of the Affordable Care Act will continue to exist in their current form. Certain legislators are continuing their efforts to repeal the Act, although there is little clarity on how such a repeal would
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be implemented and what an Affordable Care Act replacement might look like, and there continue to be lawsuits in federal courts seeking to invalidate parts or all of the Act. For the immediate future, there continues to be significant uncertainty regarding the health care, health care coverage and health care insurance markets. Both Congress and President Trump have expressed an intention to repeal or repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, and as a result certain sections of the Affordable Care Act have not been fully implemented or effectively repealed, and the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals recently upheld a lower court decision finding the Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate to be unconstitutional. The uncertainty around the future of the Affordable Care Act, and in particular the impact to reimbursement levels, may lead to uncertainty or delay in the purchasing decisions of our customers, which may in turn negatively impact our product sales. If there are not adequate reimbursement levels, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. Similarly, there are a number of state and local legislative and regulatory efforts related to drug pricing, including drug price transparency laws that apply to pharmaceutical manufacturers, that may have an impact on our business.

We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for our products or additional pricing pressures. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may introduce temporary or permanent healthcare reform measures for which we cannot predict the financial implication of on our business.
 
Even after our products receive regulatory approval, such products may not achieve expected levels of market acceptance.
 
Even if we are able to obtain regulatory approvals for our generic pharmaceutical products the success of those products is dependent upon market acceptance. Levels of market acceptance for our products could be impacted by several factors, including but not limited to:
 
the availability of alternative products from our competitors;

the price of our products relative to that of our competitors;

the timing of our market entry;

the ability to market our products effectively to the different levels in the distribution chain;

other competitor actions; and

the continued acceptance of and/or reimbursement for our products by government and private formularies and/or third party payors.

Additionally, studies of the proper utilization, safety, and efficacy of pharmaceutical products are being conducted by the industry, government agencies, and others. Such studies, which increasingly employ sophisticated methods and techniques, including methods to investigate the comparative effectiveness of different products used for similar indications, can call into question the utilization, safety, and efficacy of previously marketed as well as future products. In some cases, studies have resulted, and may in the future result, in the discontinuance of product marketing or other risk management programs, such as the need for a patient registry, as well as delays in approvals. The occurrence of any of the above risks could adversely affect our profitability, business, financial position, results of operations and/or cash flow, and could cause the market value of our common stock to decline.
 
Product recalls could harm our business.
 
Product recalls or product field alerts may be issued at our discretion or required by the FDA and Health Canada, other governmental agencies or other companies having regulatory authority for pharmaceutical product sales. From time to time, we may recall products for various reasons, including failure of our products to maintain their stability through their expiration dates or other quality issues. Any recall or product field alert has the potential of damaging our reputation or the reputation of the product. Any significant recalls could materially affect our sales. In these cases, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
 
We are susceptible to product liability claims that may not be covered by insurance and could require us to pay substantial sums.
 
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We face the risk of loss resulting from, and adverse publicity and reputational harm associated with, product liability lawsuits, whether or not such claims are valid. We may not be able to avoid such claims. In addition, our product liability insurance may not be adequate to cover such claims and we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage in the future at acceptable costs. A successful product liability claim that exceeds our policy limits could require us to pay substantial sums. In addition, product liability coverage for pharmaceutical companies is becoming more expensive and increasingly difficult to obtain and, as a result, we may not be able to obtain the type and amount of coverage we desire or to maintain our current coverage.
 
The manufacture and storage of pharmaceutical and other products are subject to inherent risk.
 
Because chemical ingredients are used in the manufacture of our products and due to the nature of the manufacturing process itself, there is a risk of incurring liability for damages caused by or during the storage or manufacture of both the chemical ingredients and the finished products. Although we have never incurred any material liability for damages of that nature, we may be subject to liability in the future. In addition, while we believe our insurance coverage is adequate, it is possible that a successful claim would exceed our coverage, requiring us to pay a substantial sum.
 
The testing required for the regulatory approval of our products is conducted by independent third parties. Any failure by any of these third parties to perform this testing properly and in a timely manner may have an adverse effect upon our ability to obtain regulatory approvals.
 
Our applications for the regulatory approval of our products incorporate the results of testing and other information that is conducted or gathered by independent third parties (including, for example, manufacturers of raw materials, testing laboratories, CROs or independent research facilities). Our ability to obtain regulatory approval of the products being tested is dependent upon the quality of the work performed by these third parties, the quality of the third parties’ facilities, and the accuracy of the information provided to us by third parties. We have little or no control over any of these factors. If this testing is not performed properly, our ability to obtain regulatory approvals could be restricted or delayed. In addition, if third party fraud or other recordkeeping problems are discovered after our products are approved for marketing, any government investigations or findings could result in any products that incorporated those fraudulent results having their regulatory approvals withdrawn. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may create additional risk and delays at our independent third party service providers.
 
The failure to obtain, maintain or protect patents, trade secrets, know-how and other intellectual property could impact our ability to compete effectively.
 
To compete effectively, we need to develop and maintain a proprietary position with regard to our own technology, products and business. We rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets, proprietary know-how and other intellectual property to protect our proprietary technology and rights. We also maintain a number of trade secrets, know-how and other intellectual property.
 
The risks and uncertainties that we face with respect to patents and other proprietary rights include the following:
 
the pending patent applications we have filed or may file, or to which we have exclusive rights, may not result in issued patents, or may take longer than we expect to result in issued patents;

changes in U.S. patent laws may adversely affect our ability to obtain or maintain our patent protection;

we may be subject to interference proceedings;

the claims of any patents that are issued may not provide meaningful protection;

we may not be able to develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;

the patents licensed or issued to us or our collaborators may not provide a competitive advantage;

other companies may challenge patents licensed or issued to us or our collaborators;

other companies may independently develop similar or alternative technologies, or duplicate our technology;

other companies may design around technologies we have licensed or developed; and

enforcement of patents is complex, uncertain and expensive.

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The trademark applications we have filed or may file may not result in trademark registrations, which would result in lesser protections for our brands.
 
Our product offerings and our customers’ products may infringe on the intellectual property rights of third parties.
 
From time to time, third parties have asserted intellectual property infringement claims against us and our customers and there can be no assurance that third parties will not assert infringement claims against either us or our customers in the future. While we believe that our product offerings do not infringe in any material respect upon proprietary rights of other parties and/or that meritorious defenses would exist with respect to any assertions to the contrary, there can be no assurance that we would not be found to infringe on the proprietary rights of others.
 
Patent applications in the U.S. and some foreign countries are generally not publicly disclosed until they are published or the patent is issued, and we may not be aware of currently filed patent applications that relate to our offerings or processes. If patents later issue on these applications, we may be found liable for subsequent infringement. There has been substantial litigation in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries with respect to the manufacture, use and sale of products and processes that are the subject of conflicting patent rights.
 
Any claims that our product offerings or processes infringe these rights, regardless of their merit or resolutions, could be costly and may divert the efforts and attention of our management and technical personnel. We may not prevail in such proceedings given the complex technical issues and inherent uncertainties in intellectual property litigation. If such proceedings result in an adverse outcome, we could, among other things, be required to:
 
pay damages in the form of lost profits and/or a reasonable royalty for any infringement;

pay substantial damages (potentially treble damages in the U.S. if any such infringement is found to be willful);

pay attorney fees of a prevailing party, if the case is found to be exceptional;

cease the manufacture, use or sale of the infringing offerings or processes;

discontinue the use of the infringing technology;

expend significant resources to design around patented technology and develop non-infringing technology; and

license patented technology from the third party claiming infringement, which license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or may not be available at all.

In addition, our customers’ products may be subject to claims of intellectual property infringement and such claims could materially affect our business if their products cease to be manufactured and they have to discontinue the use of the infringing technology which we may provide. Further, depending on the particular circumstances of any given claim, it may be the case that we may be responsible for indemnifying our customers for a claim of intellectual property infringement.
 
If we were to assert any of our own intellectual property against third parties and the third parties were found not to infringe our intellectual property or our intellectual property was found to be invalid, and/or unenforceable, we would lose the opportunity to leverage our own intellectual property, for example, through licensing of our technology to others, collection of damages and/or royalty payments based upon successful assertion of our intellectual property rights via enjoining others from practicing the technology at issue.
 
Any of the foregoing could affect our ability to compete or have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Significant balances of intangible assets, including goodwill, are subject to impairment testing and may result in impairment charges, which may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
 
A significant amount of our total assets is related to goodwill and intangible assets, including in-process research and development. As of December 31, 2019 the value of our goodwill and intangible assets net of accumulated amortization was$45.1 million. Goodwill and other intangible assets are tested for impairment annually when events occur or circumstances change that could potentially reduce the fair value of the reporting unit or intangible asset. Impairment testing compares the fair
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value of the reporting unit or intangible asset to its carrying amount. Any future goodwill or other intangible asset impairment, if any, would be recorded in operating income and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
 
We may not be able to fully realize the expected benefits from the acquisition of certain products and/or companies.
 
Our recent acquisition of certain products and a company subjects us to additional operational and financial risks, including the following:
 
additional costs that we may need to incur in order to return the products to the market and to comply with regulatory requirements;

difficulties in coordinating research and development activities;

uncertainties in the business relationships with our customers and suppliers; and

lack of previous experiences in manufacturing, commercializing, and distributing products in therapeutic areas outside of the topical generic pharmaceutical market and in markets outside of the United States.

Our approved products may not achieve commercialization at levels of market acceptance that allow us to achieve profitability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
 
We seek to develop, license or acquire products that we can commercialize at levels of market acceptance that would allow us to recoup the costs of development and commercialization, grow market share, and achieve profitability. Even if we are able to obtain regulatory approvals for certain pharmaceutical products, if we fail to accurately predict demand for such products, our business, financial position, and results of operations could be adversely impacted. Levels of market acceptance for products could be impacted by several factors, including but not limited to:
 
the availability of alternative products from our competitors;

the price of our products relative to that of our competitors;

the effectiveness of our marketing relative to that of our competitors;

the timing of our market entry;

the ability to market our products effectively to the retail level; and

the acceptance of our products by government and private formularies.

Some of these factors are not within our control and, if any such factor arises, our profitability, business, financial position and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
 
Future acquisitions and investments could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition and operating results.
 
Our growth will depend, in part, on our continued ability to develop, commercialize and expand our drug products, including in response to changing regulatory and competitive pressures. In some circumstances, we accelerate our growth through the acquisition of complementary products and technologies rather than through internal development. The identification of suitable products to be acquired can be difficult, time-consuming and costly, and we may not be able to successfully complete or successfully execute strategies for identified acquisitions. The risks faced in connection with acquisitions include:
 
diversion of management time and focus from operating our business to addressing acquisition and/or product integration challenges;

coordination of research and development and sales and marketing functions;

retention of key employees from the acquired company;

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integration of the acquired company’s accounting, management information, human resources and other administrative systems;

the need to implement or improve controls, procedures, and policies at a business that prior to the acquisition may have lacked effective controls, procedures and policies;

liability for activities of the acquired company and/or products before the acquisition, including patent infringement claims, violations of laws, commercial disputes, tax liabilities and other known and unknown liabilities;

unanticipated write-offs or charges; and

litigation or other claims in connection with the acquired company or product, including claims from product users, former stockholders or other third parties.

In any acquisition that we may undertake, our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with any acquisitions and investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions or investments, cause us to incur unanticipated liabilities, and harm our business generally.
 
We may become involved in legal proceedings from time to time which may result in losses, damage to our business and reputation and place a strain on our internal resources.
 
In the ordinary course of our business, we may be involved in legal proceedings with both private parties and certain government agencies, including the FDA. Enforcement actions and litigation may result in verdicts against us, which may include significant monetary awards, judgments that certain of our intellectual property rights are invalid or unenforceable and injunctions preventing the manufacture, marketing and sale of our products. If disputes are resolved unfavorably, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
 
Any government enforcement action or litigation, whether or not successful, may damage our reputation. Furthermore, we are likely to incur substantial expense in defending these actions and lawsuits, and the time demands of such enforcement actions and lawsuits could divert management’s attention from ongoing business concerns and interfere with our normal operations.
 
In the normal course of business, we periodically enter into employment agreements, legal settlements, and other agreements which incorporate indemnification provisions. We maintain insurance coverage which we believe will effectively mitigate our obligations under these indemnification provisions. However, should our obligation under an indemnification provision exceed our coverage or should coverage be denied, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
 
Our business and operations would suffer in the event of system failures.
 
Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. Any system failure, accident or security breach that causes interruptions in our operations could result in a material disruption of our product development programs. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we may incur liability and the further development of our product candidates may be delayed.
 
In addition, we rely on complex information technology systems, including Internet-based systems, to support our supply chain processes as well as internal and external communications. The size and complexity of our systems make them potentially vulnerable to breakdown or interruption, whether due to computer viruses or other causes that may result in the loss of key information or the impairment of production and other supply chain processes. Such disruptions and breaches of security could adversely affect our business.
 
Compliance with ongoing post-marketing obligations for our approved ANDAs, NDAs, NDSs, and ANDSs may uncover new safety information that could give rise to a product recall, updated warnings, or other regulatory actions that could have an adverse impact on our business.   
 
After the FDA or Health Canada approves a drug for marketing under an NDA, ANDA, NDS, or ANDS, the product’s sponsor must comply with several post-marketing obligations that continue until the product is discontinued. These post-marking obligations include the prompt reporting of serious adverse events to the appropriate regulatory agency or agencies, the
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submission of product-specific annual reports that include changes in the distribution, manufacturing, and labeling information, and notification when a drug product is found to have significant deviations from its approved manufacturing specifications (among others). Our ongoing compliance with these types of mandatory reporting requirements could result in additional requests for information from the FDA or Health Canada and, depending on the scope of a potential product issue that the FDA or Health Canada may decide to pursue, potentially also result in a request from the agency to conduct a product recall or to strengthen warnings and/or revise other label information about the product. Any of these post-marketing regulatory actions could materially affect our sales and, therefore, they have the potential to adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
 
Economic conditions could severely impact us.
 
Current economic conditions may cause a decline in business and consumer spending which could adversely affect our business and financial performance. Our operating results are impacted by the health of the North American economies. Our business and financial performance, including collection of our accounts receivable, realization of inventory, recoverability of assets including investments, may be adversely affected by current and future economic conditions, such as a reduction in the availability of credit, financial market volatility and recession. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may negatively impact North American economies, introduce extreme market volatility and potentially trigger a global recession.
 
Adverse conditions in the economy and disruption of financial markets could negatively impact our customers and therefore our results of operations.
 
An economic downturn in the businesses or geographic areas in which we sell our products could reduce demand for these products and result in a decrease in sales volume that could have a negative impact on our results of operations. Volatility and disruption of financial markets could limit our customers’ ability to obtain adequate financing or credit to purchase and pay for our products in a timely manner, or to maintain operations, and result in a decrease in sales volume that could have a negative impact on our results of operations. Additionally, economic conditions and market turbulence may also impact our suppliers causing them to be unable to supply in a timely manner sufficient quantities of product components, thereby impairing our ability to manufacture on schedule and at commercially reasonable costs.
 
If the U.S. economy rapidly contracts or expands, we may have difficulty quickly scaling our operations in response, which may negatively impact our business and financial position. The recent COVID-19 coronavirus has negatively impacted the financial markets and may create additional risk for our customers and their ability to pay for our products.
 
If we are unable to hire additional qualified personnel, our ability to grow or maintain our business may be harmed.
 
We will need to hire or retain qualified personnel with expertise in nonclinical testing, government regulation, formulation and manufacturing, sales and marketing and finance. We compete for qualified individuals with numerous pharmaceutical and consumer products companies, universities and other research institutions. Competition for such individuals is intense, and we cannot be certain that our search for such personnel will be successful. Attracting and retaining qualified personnel will be critical to our success. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may cause additional retention and recruitment challenges for the Company.
 
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and if we are unable to satisfy regulatory requirements relating to internal controls, our stock price could suffer.
 
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires companies to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of their internal control over financial reporting. At the end of each fiscal year, we must perform an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting, include in our annual report the results of the evaluation. We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and if additional material weaknesses are found in our internal controls in the future, or if we fail to remediate our existing material weaknesses, we could fail to meet our regulatory reporting requirements and be subject to regulatory scrutiny and a loss of public confidence in our internal controls, which could have an adverse effect on our stock price.

We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, which could continue to impact negatively our ability to report our results of operations and financial condition accurately and in a timely manner.
 
As required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, management has conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting at December 31, 2019. We identified a number of material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and concluded that, as of December 31, 2019, we did not maintain effective control
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over financial reporting based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. For a detailed description of these material weaknesses, see Item 9A, "Controls and Procedures." Each of our material weaknesses results in more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements that we prepare will not be prevented or detected. As a result, we must perform extensive additional work to obtain reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial statements. In addition, on March 15, 2018, we filed an amendment to our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2017 and on December 12, 2018, we filed an amendment to our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2018, in each case in order to revise and restate certain items disclosed in such reports. Moreover, other material weaknesses may be identified.
 
We are in the process of remedying all of the identified material weaknesses, and this work will continue during fiscal 2020 and beyond. For a detailed description of our remedial efforts, see Item 9A, "Controls and Procedures." There can be no assurance as to when all of the material weaknesses will be remedied. Until our remedial efforts are completed, management will continue to devote significant time and attention to these efforts, and we will continue to incur expenses associated with the additional procedures and resources required to prepare our Consolidated Financial Statements. Certain of our remedial actions, such as hiring additional qualified personnel to implement our reconciliation and review procedures, will be ongoing and will result in our incurring additional costs even after our material weaknesses are remedied.
 
If we are unsuccessful in implementing or following our remediation plan, or fail to update our internal control over financial reporting as our business evolves or to integrate acquired businesses into our controls system, or if additional material weaknesses are found in our internal controls in the future, we may not be able to timely or accurately report our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows or to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures. If we are unable to report financial information in a timely and accurate manner or to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures, we could be subject to, among other things, regulatory or enforcement actions by the SEC, an inability for us to be accepted for listing on any national securities exchange in the near future, securities litigation and a general loss of investor confidence, any one of which could adversely affect our business prospects and the market value of our Common Stock. Further, there are inherent limitations to the effectiveness of any system of controls and procedures, including the possibility of human error and the circumvention or overriding of the controls and procedures. We could face additional litigation exposure and a greater likelihood of an SEC enforcement or other regulatory action if further restatements were to occur or other accounting-related problems emerge. In addition, any future restatements or other accounting-related problems may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Currency fluctuations and changes in exchange rates could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and/or common stock price.
 
Although we report our financial results in U.S. Dollars, a portion of our revenues and other liabilities and our costs are denominated in non-U.S. currencies, including the Euro and Canadian Dollar. Our results of operations and, in some cases, cash flows, have in the past been and may in the future be adversely affected by certain movements in currency exchange rates. The occurrence of any of the above risks could cause a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and/or share price. The recent COVID-19 pandemic could potentially create incremental foreign currency volatility and increase our risks.

The Company is exposed to market risk from fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

The Company operates in multiple jurisdictions denominated in currencies of the local jurisdiction. Additionally, the Company
may enter into acquisition, licensing, borrowing or other financial transactions that may give rise to currency exposure. Since
the Company cannot, with certainty, foresee and mitigate against such adverse fluctuations, fluctuations in currency exchange
rates could negatively affect the Company’s results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
 
Our ability to use our net operating loss carry forwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
 
As of December 31, 2019, we had federal net operating loss carry forwards, or NOLs, of approximately $48.5 million which expire from 2020 through 2037. Federal operating losses arising during and after 2018 are not subject to expiration; however, their usage is limited to 80% of taxable income during the year of use. Our ability to utilize our NOLs may be limited under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code. The limitations apply if an ownership change, as defined by Section 382, occurs. Generally, an ownership change occurs when certain shareholders increase their aggregate ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage in a testing period (typically three years). Our ability to use net operating loss carry forwards is subject to substantial limitation in future periods under certain provisions of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, which limit the utilization of net operating losses upon a more than 50% change in ownership of our
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stock that is held by 5% or greater stockholders. We examined the application of Section 382 with respect to an ownership change that took place during 2010, as well as the limitation on the application of net operating loss carry forwards. We believe that operating losses subsequent to the change date in 2010 (aggregating $26.5 million) are not subject to Section 382 limitations. We have estimated that the annual limitation starting in 2010 aggregates from $1.0 million to $2.3 million per year including the effect of amortization of built in gains.

We are subject to the provisions of ASC 740-10-25, Income Taxes (ASC 740). ASC 740 prescribes a more likely-than-not threshold for the financial statement recognition of uncertain tax positions. ASC 740 clarifies the accounting for income taxes by prescribing a minimum recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. On a quarterly basis, we undergo a process to evaluate whether income tax accruals are in accordance with ASC 740 guidance on uncertain tax positions. For federal purposes, (except for the years 2014 and 2015, which have been examined by the Internal Revenue Services), post 1998 tax years remain open to examination as a result of net operating loss carryforwards. We are currently open to audit by the appropriate state income taxing authorities for tax years 2014 through 2018.
The 2017 comprehensive federal tax reform bill could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

On December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law the “United States Tax Cuts and Jobs Act,” or U.S. TCJA, significantly revising the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. The U.S. TCJA, among other things, includes changes to U.S. federal tax rates, imposes significant additional limitations on the deductibility of interest and net operating loss carryforwards, allows for the expensing of capital expenditures, and puts into effect the migration from a “worldwide” system of taxation to a territorial system. Our net deferred tax assets and liabilities have been revalued at the newly enacted U.S. corporate rate, and the impact was recognized in our tax expense in the year of enactment. We continue to examine the impact this tax reform legislation may have on our business. We urge investors to consult with their legal and tax advisers regarding the implications of the U.S. TCJA on an investment in our common stock.

We are currently involved in antitrust litigation related to our pricing practices. which is also part of a larger investigation by the attorneys general of forty-five states into alleged generic drug price fixing schemes and asserting claims under federal antitrust law (specifically, section 1 of the Sherman Act).

Thirteen putative class actions have been filed against us and have been consolidated in Multidistrict Litigation in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania regarding the pricing of generic pharmaceuticals, including our antifungal skin cream Econazole Nitrate 1% product. In addition, “Opt-out” antitrust lawsuits have been filed against us by various plaintiffs and all but one has been consolidated into the Multidistrict Litigation. Each of the opt-out complaints names up to forty-seven defendants (including us) and involves allegations regarding the pricing of econazole along with up to 180 other drug products, most of which were not manufactured or sold by us during the period at issue. While we intend to vigorously defend our position in connection with these lawsuits, the outcome of the litigation could result in serious fines being levied on us, along with harm to our reputation. Any negative outcome from this or any other investigation related to our pricing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be subject to, or may in the future become subject to, U.S. federal and state, and foreign laws and regulations imposing obligations on how we collect, use, disclose, store and process personal information. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could result in liability or reputational harm and could harm our business. Ensuring compliance with such laws could also impair our efforts to maintain and expand our customer base, and thereby decrease our revenue.

In many activities, including the conduct of clinical trials, we are subject to laws and regulations governing data privacy and the protection of health-related and other personal information. These laws and regulations govern our processing of personal data, including the collection, access, use, analysis, modification, storage, transfer, security breach notification, destruction and disposal of personal data. We must comply with laws and regulations associated with the international transfer of personal data based on the location in which the personal data originates and the location in which it is processed. In May 2016, the EU Parliament adopted the comprehensive General Data Privacy Regulation, or the GDPR to, among other things, impose more stringent data protection requirements for processors and controllers of personal data and provide for greater penalties and fines for noncompliance, including fines in amounts up to €20 million or 4% of total worldwide annual turnover, whichever is higher. The GDPR became fully effective in May 2018. In addition, in 2018, California adopted a new privacy law that went into effect on January 1, 2020, which borrows heavily from the GDPR. Complying with the enhanced obligations imposed by the GDPR and other applicable international and US privacy laws and regulations may result in significant costs to our business and require us to amend certain of our business practices. Further, enforcement actions and investigations by regulatory authorities related to data security incidents and privacy violations continue to increase. The future enactment of more restrictive laws,
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rules or regulations and/or future enforcement actions or investigations could have a materially adverse impact on us through increased costs or restrictions on our businesses, and noncompliance could result in regulatory penalties and significant legal liability.
 
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
 
Shares of our common stock can be relatively illiquid which may affect the trading price of our common stock.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2019, the average daily trading volume of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was 411,037 shares. As a result of our relatively small public float, our common stock may be less liquid than the stock of companies with broader public ownership. Among other things, trading of a relatively small volume of our common stock may have a greater impact on the trading price for our shares than would be the case if our public float were larger. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may cause increased risk to our common stock’s liquidity and trading price.
 
We have not paid dividends to our common stockholders in the past nor do we expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, and any return on investment may be limited to potential future appreciation on the value of our common stock.
 
We currently intend to retain any future earnings to support the development and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Our payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors after taking into account various factors, including without limitation, our financial condition, operating results, cash needs, growth plans and the terms of any credit agreements that we may be a party to at the time. To the extent we do not pay dividends, our stock may be less valuable because a return on investment will only occur if and to the extent our stock price appreciates, which may never occur. In addition, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation as the only way to realize their investment, and if the price of our stock does not appreciate, then there will be no return on investment. Investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.
 
If we fail to comply with the reporting obligations of the Exchange Act and Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or if we fail to achieve and maintain adequate disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, our business results of operations and financial condition, and investors’ confidence in us, could be materially adversely affected.
 
As a public company, we are required to comply with the periodic reporting obligations of the Exchange Act including preparing annual reports, quarterly reports and current reports. We did not timely file our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2018, which quarterly report was filed on December 12, 2018. Our failure to prepare and disclose this information in a timely manner could subject us to penalties under federal securities laws, expose us to lawsuits and restrict our ability to access financing. In addition, we are required under applicable law and regulations to integrate our systems of disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. Our management assessed our existing disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2019, and our management concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of December 31, 2019, solely because of the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting described herein in Item 9A(ii).
 
If we fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude that we have effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting in accordance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Moreover, effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent fraud. As a result, our failure to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 on a timely basis could result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could harm our business and negatively impact the trading price of our common stock.
 
Our principal stockholders, directors and executive officers own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exercise significant influence over our affairs.
 
Our current principal stockholders, directors and executive officers own in the aggregate a significant portion of the voting power of our capital stock. As a result, these stockholders, if acting together, would be able to influence or control matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors and the approval of mergers, acquisitions or other extraordinary transactions. They may also have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change of control of our company, could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our common stock.
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Due to the concentration of common stock owned by significant stockholders, the sale of such stock might adversely affect the price of our common stock.
 
Our largest stockholders own shares of common stock that have been registered for resale under the Securities Act. The sale of such stock, depending on the interplay of numerous factors, including, without limitation, the method and timing of the sales, could substantially depress the value of our common stock. If such stockholders sold a significant amount of stock it could have an adverse effect on the price of the stock.
 
Our stock price is, and we expect it to remain, volatile and subject to wide fluctuations, which may make it difficult for stockholders to sell shares of common stock at or above the price for which they were acquired.
 
Our stock price is, and we expect it to remain, volatile, which could limit investors’ ability to sell stock at a profit. During the last two fiscal years, our stock price has closed at a low of $0.40 in the fourth quarter of 2019 and a high of $4.46 in the third quarter of 2018. The volatile price of our stock makes it difficult for investors to predict the value of their investment, to sell shares at a profit at any given time, or to plan purchases and sales in advance. A variety of factors may affect the market price of our common stock. These include, but are not limited to:
 
publicity regarding actual or potential clinical results relating to products under development by our competitors or us;

delay or failure in initiating, completing or analyzing nonclinical or clinical trials or the unsatisfactory design or results of these trials;

achievement or rejection of regulatory approvals by our competitors or us;

announcements of technological innovations or new commercial products by our competitors or us;

developments concerning proprietary rights, including patents;

developments concerning our collaborations;

regulatory developments in the U.S. and foreign countries;

economic or other crises in the markets in which we compete, and other external factors;

stock market price and volume fluctuations of other publicly traded companies and, in particular, those that are in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and consumer products industry;

actual or anticipated sales of our common stock, including sales by our directors, officers or significant stockholders;

period-to-period fluctuations in our revenues and other results of operations;

speculation about our business in the press or the investment community; and

global events such as natural disasters, pandemics or acts of terrorism.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in their stock price. This type of litigation, even if it does not result in liability for us, could result in substantial costs to us and divert management’s attention and resources.
 
Risks Related to our Notes and Senior Credit Facilities
 
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the Notes, purchase the Notes as required pursuant to the terms of the indentures governing the Notes or pay the redemption price for any Notes we redeem, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the Notes.
 
On December 16, 2014, we completed the sale of $125 million aggregate principal amount of 3.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2019 (the “2019 Notes”) to Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC as the initial purchasers and on
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December 22, 2014, we issued to the initial purchasers an additional $18.75 million aggregate principal amount of the Notes. On May 1, 2018, we entered into separate, privately negotiated exchange agreements with certain holders of the Notes to exchange an aggregate principal amount of approximately $75 million of the 2019 Notes in exchange for an equal amount of our 4.75% Convertible Senior Notes due May 1, 2023 (the “2023 Notes”). On October 31, 2019, the Company closed its offering of the 2023 Series B Notes in the aggregate principal amount of $34.4 million due May 1, 2023 (“2023 Series B Notes” and together with the 2023 Notes, the “Notes”). As part of the offering, the Company entered into agreements with certain holders of its existing 2023 Notes to exchange $9.0 million of the 2023 Notes for $5.1 million of the 2023 Series B Notes. The gross cash proceeds of approximately $29.3 million from the financing were used to extinguish the Company’s existing 2019 Notes in December 2019 and intended to pay amounts owing with respect to other indebtedness and to fund general corporate and working capital requirements. Pursuant to the terms of the indentures governing the Notes, following certain events, holders of the Notes will have the right to require us to purchase their Notes for cash. Such event may also constitute an event of default or prepayment under, and result in the acceleration of the maturity of, our then-existing indebtedness. We cannot assure you that we will have sufficient financial resources, or will be able to arrange financing, to pay the purchase price in cash with respect to any Notes surrendered by holders for purchase at that time, make cash payments upon conversions or pay the redemption price for any Notes we redeem. In addition, restrictions in our then existing credit facilities or other indebtedness, if any, may not allow us to purchase the Notes (even if required pursuant to the terms of the indentures), make cash payments upon conversions of the Notes or pay the redemption price for any Notes we redeem would result in an event of default with respect to the Notes which could, in turn, constitute a default under the terms of our other indebtedness, if any. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and purchase the Notes, make cash payments upon conversions thereof or pay the redemption price for any Notes we redeem. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may create incremental challenges in securing the funds required to pay our Notes.

Our substantial indebtedness could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under the Notes.
 
As of December 31, 2019, our total consolidated indebtedness was $214.0 million. Our substantial level of indebtedness coupled with our net loss increases the possibility that we may be unable to generate cash sufficient to pay, when due, the principal of, interest on, or other amounts due in respect of our indebtedness. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may add to our indebtedness. Our substantial indebtedness, combined with our other financial obligations and contractual commitments, may have a material adverse impact on us. For example, it could
 
make it difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our outstanding and other future debt obligations;

increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic conditions or a downturn in the industries in which we operate;

impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, investments, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;

require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows to the payment to our financing sources, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flows to fund working capital, investments, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes; and

place us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors.

Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our debt.
 
Our ability to make payments of the principal of, to pay interest on, to pay any cash due upon conversion of or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Notes and Senior Credit Facilities, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control, which is increased as a result of the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.
 
To the extent we issue shares of our common stock to satisfy all or a portion of our conversion obligation, conversions of the Notes will dilute the ownership interest of our existing stockholders, including holders who had previously converted their Notes.
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The holders of our Notes can require us, under certain circumstances, to convert their Notes into shares of our common stock. We have the option to satisfy this conversion obligation with cash, shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock at our election. To the extent we issue shares of our common stock to satisfy all or a portion of our conversion obligation, the conversion of some or all of the Notes will dilute the ownership interests of our existing stockholders. Any sales in the public market of our common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Notes could depress the price of our common stock.

Restrictive covenants in our Senior Credit Facilities may interfere with our ability to obtain additional advances under existing credit facilities or to obtain new financing or to engage in other business activities.

Our Senior Credit Facilities contain certain affirmative, negative, and financial covenants, including cross-defaults on other material indebtedness, as well as events of default triggered by a change of control and certain actions initiated by the FDA.

These restrictions may interfere with our ability to obtain additional advances under our credit facilities or to obtain restrictions may interfere with our ability to obtain additional advances under existing credit facilities or to obtain new financing or to engage in other business activities, which may inhibit our ability to grow our business and increase revenue.

Our ability to satisfy our obligations pursuant to our Senior Credit Facilities depends on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control.

On December 13, 2018, we entered into: (i) a First Lien Revolving Credit Agreement, by and among us, as the borrower, certain of our subsidiaries, as guarantors, the lenders from time to time party thereto, and ACF Finco I LP, as administrative agent (the “First Lien Agent”) (as amended on October 31, 2019, the “First Lien Credit Agreement”) and (ii) a Second Lien Credit Agreement, by and among us, as the borrower, certain of our subsidiaries, as guarantors, the lenders from time to time party thereto, and Ares Capital Corporation, as administrative agent (the “Second Lien Agent”) (as amended on February 8, 2019, June 29, 2019 and October 31, 2019, the “Second Lien Credit Agreement” and, together with the First Credit Agreement, the “Senior Credit Facilities”). The Senior Credit Facilities consist of a first lien asset based revolving credit facility of up to $25.0 million ("Revolver") and an aggregate of $80.0 million in original principal amount of second lien term loans consisting of a $50.0 million initial term loan and a $30.0 million delayed draw term loan A (collectively, the “Term Loans”). The Senior Credit Facilities also included a $15.0 million delayed draw term loan b commitment, which remained undrawn and expired on October 31, 2019. As of December 31, 2019, $25.0 million was drawn under the Revolver and $88.5 million of Term Loans were outstanding. As of December 31, 2019, the Revolver was fully drawn. The Revolver bears interest at a fluctuating rate of interest equal to one, two, three or six-month LIBOR plus a margin of 3.75% or a rate based on the prime rate plus a margin of 2.75%. The Revolver matures on the earliest to occur of the June 23, 2024 and the date of that is 91 days prior to the maturity date of each of (x) the 2023 Notes and (y) the 2023 Series B Notes. The Term Loans bear interest at a fluctuating rate of interest equal to one, two, three or six-month LIBOR plus a margin of 8.75% or a rate based on the prime rate plus a margin of 7.75%. The Term Loans mature on the earliest to occur of the June 23, 2024 and the date of that is 181 days prior to the maturity date of each of (x) the 2023 Notes and (y) the 2023 Series B Notes. Interest on the Senior Credit Facilities is payable in cash quarterly in arrears (or more frequently in connection with customary LIBOR interest provisions), provided, that the Company may elect (and has covenanted to the lenders under its First Lien Credit Agreement to) pay interest on the Term Loans in kind until the earlier to occur of the date upon which Company has provided financial statements demonstrating twelve-months of revenue of at least $125,000,000 and (ii) December 28, 2020. As the interest rates applicable to the Senior Facilities are fluctuating, we do have market risk related thereto.

We may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to cover required interest and principal payments, which could result in an event of default and acceleration of our obligations under these agreements, which may require us to seek additional financing or restructure existing debt on unfavorable terms. In addition, adverse changes in credit markets could increase our cost of borrowing and make it more difficult for us to obtain financing. The recent COVID-19 pandemic may negatively impact our ability to make scheduled payments or satisfy other obligations pursuant to our Senior Credit Facility.
 
We will continue to have the ability to incur debt; if we incur substantial additional debt, these higher levels of debt may affect our ability to pay the principal of and interest on the Notes and the Senior Credit Facilities.
 
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional debt in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in our debt instruments, some of which may be secured debt. The indentures governing the 2023 Notes do not restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness or require us to maintain financial ratios or specified levels of net worth or liquidity. Thereafter, we and the subsidiary guarantors of the 2023 Series B Notes will continue to be restricted from incurring indebtedness, with
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exceptions and baskets as further set forth in the indenture governing the 2023 Series B Notes. All restrictions on the incurrence of indebtedness by us and the subsidiary guarantors in the indenture governing the 2023 Series B Notes will terminate on the first date on which the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the notes is equal to or less than 10% of the original principal balance of the 2023 Series B Notes. If we incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, these higher levels of indebtedness may affect our ability to pay the principal of and interest on the Notes, or any fundamental change purchase price or any cash due upon conversion, to pay the principal of and interest on our Senior Credit Facilities, and our creditworthiness generally.

Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.
 
Item 2.  PROPERTIES
 
The Company’s executive administrative offices are located in Buena, New Jersey, in two facilities now totaling approximately 110,000 square feet with the expansion of the facility completed in the fourth quarter of 2018 is built on 8.44 acres of land in 1995, which we own. In 2017 we acquired an additional 3.0 acres of adjacent land in support of our facility expansion. We now own a total of 11.44 acres at our Buena facility. One of those facilities is used for production, product development, marketing and warehousing for our own generic prescription pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical and cosmetic products. In July 2016, the Company completed the first phase of the facility expansion in the Buena, New Jersey location. The facility now houses our new product development laboratory for work on topical and sterile pharmaceuticals. The other facility is currently being expanded to increase our manufacturing capacity for topical products, and will also enable the production of sterile injectable products in both vial and ampule presentations. We lease additional square feet of warehouse space as needed in Vineland, New Jersey, lease approximately 9,500 square feet of corporate office space in Iselin, New Jersey, and lease approximately 4,000 square feet of office space in Mississauga, Canada. The Company also leases approximately 3,000 square feet of office and laboratory space in Tallinn, Estonia.

 
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Item 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

To date, thirteen putative class action antitrust lawsuits have been filed against the Company along with co-defendants, including Taro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc. and Perrigo New York Inc., regarding the pricing of generic pharmaceuticals, including econazole nitrate. The class plaintiffs seek to represent nationwide or state classes consisting of persons who directly purchased, indirectly purchased, paid and/or reimbursed patients for the purchase of generic pharmaceuticals from as early as July 1, 2009 until the time the defendants’ allegedly unlawful conduct ceased or will cease. The class plaintiffs seek treble damages for alleged overcharges during the alleged period of conspiracy, and certain of the class plaintiffs also seek injunctive relief against the defendants. The actions have been consolidated by the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation to the Eastern District of Pennsylvania for pre-trial proceedings as part of the In re Generic Pharmaceuticals Pricing Antitrust Litigation matter. On October 16, 2018 the court dismissed the class plaintiffs’ claims against the Company with leave to replead. On December 21, 2018 the class plaintiffs filed amended complaints, which the Company moved to dismiss on February 21, 2019. This motion remains pending. On December 19, 2019 certain class plaintiffs filed a further complaint that included additional claims against the Company based on the Company’s sales of fluocinolone acetonide. A motion to dismiss this complaint has not yet been filed.

“Opt-out” antitrust lawsuits have additionally been filed against the Company by various plaintiffs, including Humana Inc.; The Kroger Co. et al.; United HealthCare Services, Inc.; Molina Healthcare, Inc.; MSP Recovery Claims, Series LLC; Health Care Service Corp.; and Harris County, Texas. All but one of these complaints have been consolidated into the In re Generic Pharmaceuticals Pricing Antitrust Litigation matter by the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. Each of the opt-out complaints names up to forty-seven defendants (including the Company) and involves allegations regarding the pricing of econazole along with up to 180 other drug products, most of which were not manufactured or sold by the Company during the period at issue. The opt-out plaintiffs seek treble damages for alleged overcharges for the drug products identified in the complaint during the alleged period of conspiracy, and some also seek injunctive relief. A motion to dismiss the Humana Inc. and The Kroger Co., et al. opt-out complaints was filed on February 21, 2019. A motion to dismiss the remaining opt-out complaints has not yet been filed.

Due to the early stage of these cases, we are unable to form a judgment at this time as to whether an unfavorable outcome is either probable or remote or to provide an estimate of the amount or range of potential loss. We believe these cases are without merit, and we intend to vigorously defend against these claims.

On October 20, 2017, a Demand for Arbitration was filed with the American Arbitration Association by Stayma Consulting Services, Inc. (“Stayma”) against the Company regarding the Company’s development and manufacture for Stayma of two generic drug products, one a lotion and one a cream, containing 0.05% of the active pharmaceutical ingredient flurandrenolide. The Company developed the two products and Stayma purchased commercial quantities of each; however, Stayma alleges that the Company breached agreements between the parties by developing an additional and different generic drug product, an ointment, containing flurandrenolide, and failing to meet certain contractual requirements. Stayma seeks monetary damages. The arbitrator has issued an interim award finding that the Company is not liable to Stayma on two of Stayma’s three claims against the Company. The third claim will proceed to a damages phase. The Company has argued that Stayma did not suffer any damages related to this claim and will vigorously pursue complete dismissal of the third claim. In addition, the arbitrator will determine money damages owed by Stayma to the Company relating to Stayma’s failure to pay several past due invoices of approximately $1.7 million.

On December 13, 2018, Valdepharm SA filed a lawsuit alleging that the Company breached contracts regarding two drug products that the Company had sought to have Valdepharm manufacture. On February 12, 2019 the Company answered the complaint and counterclaimed, alleging that Valdepharm breached the contracts by failing to perform its work in compliance with FDA regulations and current Good Manufacturing Practices. Each party seeks damages associated with the alleged breach and related claims. Due to the early stage of the case we are unable to form a judgment at this time as to whether an unfavorable outcome is either probable or remote or to provide an estimate of the amount or range of potential loss. We believe the claims against Teligent are without merit, and we intend to vigorously defend against them.

On April 15, 2019 a federal class action was filed the Oklahoma Police Pension Fund and Retirement System against the Company and certain individual defendants in the U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York. The lawsuit was brought on behalf of persons or entities who purchased or otherwise acquired publicly-traded Teligent, Inc. securities from March 7, 2017 through November 6, 2017. The complaint alleges that defendants made false or misleading statements regarding the Company’s business, operational, and compliance policies in violation of U.S. securities laws. The plaintiff seeks to recover compensable damages. Due to the early stage of these cases, we are unable to form a judgment at this time as to whether an unfavorable outcome is either probable or remote or to provide an estimate of the amount or range of potential loss. We believe these cases are without merit, and we intend to vigorously defend against these claims.

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Item 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
Not applicable.
 
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PART II
 
Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Market Information
 
We transferred the listing of our common stock from the NYSE MKT to the NASDAQ Global Select Market. Our common stock ceased trading on the NYSE MKT under the symbol “IG” at the close of business on October 23, 2015 and began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TLGT” on October 26, 2015.
Stockholders
 
As of March 25, 2020, there were approximately 342 stockholders of record of our 53,899,495 outstanding shares of common stock.
 
Dividends
 
We have not paid cash dividends to our stockholders since inception and we do not plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain earnings, if any, to finance the growth of the Company.
 
Equity Compensation Plans
 
The information required by Item 5 of Form 10-K regarding equity compensation plans is incorporated herein by reference to Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report.
 
Unregistered Sales of Securities
 
None.
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
None.
 

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Item 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The selected consolidated financial data presented below should be read in conjunction with the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," included in Item 7.
 As of and For the Years Ended December 31,
20192018201720162015
(In thousands, except per share data)
Revenues$65,896  $65,865  $60,202  $63,012  $37,940  
Gross profit23,523  22,385  27,372  34,687  21,315  
Operating (loss) income(8,020) (15,099) (11,797) 2,542  (3,192) 
Interest and other non-operating income (expense)(21,339) (21,219) (3,479) (14,240) 9,895  
Foreign currency exchange (loss) gain(1,523) (3,371) 7,719  (936) 109  
Loss before income tax expense(25,033) (36,318) (15,276) (11,698) 6,703  
Income tax (benefit) provision91  (62) (85) 287  35  
Net (loss) income(25,124) (36,256) (15,191) (11,985) 6,668  
Net (loss) income attributable to common stockholders(25,124) (36,256) (15,191) (11,985) 6,668  
Weighted average shares outstanding:
Basic53,839  53,593  53,324  53,078  52,873  
Diluted53,839  53,593  53,324  53,078  67,112  
PER SHARE:
Net (loss) income:
Basic(0.47) (0.68) (0.28) (0.23) 0.13  
Diluted(0.47) (0.68) (0.28) (0.23) (0.07) 
BALANCE SHEET DATA:
Current assets$61,644  $48,386  $59,131  $101,965  $115,542  
Property, plant and equipment, net96,349  91,775  68,355  26,215  8,706  
Total assets206,905  190,892  184,585  181,895  183,503  
Current liabilities16,606  32,612  18,696  13,632  9,509  
Long-term obligations, less current installments195,606  139,859  121,136  111,596  107,235  
Stockholders’ (deficit)/equity(5,307) 18,421  44,753  56,667  66,759  
CASH FLOW DATA:
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities$(18,419) $(13,275) $398  $(447) $(15,459) 
Net cash used in investing activities(8,203) (25,294) (40,429) (20,076) (53,068) 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities30,449  25,333  269  (10) (3,111) 
Net (decrease)/increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash3,827  (13,236) (39,762) (20,533) (71,638) 

Item 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Forward-Looking Statements
 
This “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section and other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K contain forward-looking statements that are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the industry and markets in which the Company operates and on management’s beliefs and
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assumptions. In addition, other written or oral statements, which constitute forward-looking statements, may be made by or on behalf of the Company. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, and involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, which are difficult to predict. See “Item 1A: Risk Factors” above. Therefore, actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what is expressed or forecasted in such forward-looking statements. The Company undertakes no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

Company Overview
 
Strategic Overview
 
Teligent, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively the "Company") is a specialty generic pharmaceutical company. Our mission is to become a leader in the specialty generic pharmaceutical market. Under our own label, we currently market and sell generic topical and generic and branded generic injectable pharmaceutical products in the United States and Canada. In the United States we currently market 38 generic topical pharmaceutical products and four branded generic pharmaceutical products. In Canada we sell 32 generic and branded generic injectable products and medical devices. Generic pharmaceutical products are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts. We also provide contract manufacturing services to the pharmaceutical, over-the-counter, ("OTC"), and cosmetic markets. We operate our business under one segment. Our common stock is trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “TLGT.” Our principal executive office, laboratories and manufacturing facilities are located at 105 Lincoln Avenue, Buena, New Jersey. We have additional offices located in Iselin, New Jersey, Mississauga, Canada, and Tallinn, Estonia.
 
Currently, we have two platforms for growth:
 
Developing, manufacturing and marketing a portfolio of generic pharmaceutical products under our own or a private label in topical, injectable, complex and ophthalmic dosage forms; and

Managing our current contract manufacturing and formulation services business.